Cherokee Chief John Ross, writing to David Brown, July 13, 1822:
. . . To reflect seriously on the condition of the Indian Tribes inhabiting the continent of America, and to review the miserable fate which has befalled and swept into wretchedness and oblivion the numerous Tribes that once inhabited the country bordering on the Atlantic, is enough to make the remnant of those Tribes, who are now encompassed by the white population, shudder. Yet I cannot believe, that the Indians are doomed to perish in wretchedness, from generation to generation, as they are approached by the white population, until they shall be annihilated from the face of the earth.
. . . the United States Government . . . as has hitherto been adopted, to effect the purpose of removing nation after nation from the lands of their fathers into the remote wilderness, where their encroachment on the hunting grounds of other Tribes has been attended with the unhappy consequences of quarrels, wars, and bloodshed. Has not this been the result of the removal of part of our nation to the Arkassaw? Yes! the uplifted tomahawk is now wielding, and the scalping knife is unsheathed, between the Arkansaw, Cherokees and the Osages, for the horrid destruction of each other.