Monday, December 4, 2017

How President Trump is Lincolnesque


 We must accept the results of universal suffrage, and not try to make it appear that we can elect fine gentlemen.  We shall have coarse men, with a fair chance of worth and manly ability, but not polite men, not men to please the English or French. You cannot refine Mr. Lincoln’s taste, extend his horizon, or clear his judgment; he will not walk dignifiedly through the traditional part of the President of America, but will pop out his head at each railroad station and make a little speech and get into an argument with Judge A and Squire B.  He will write letters to Horace Greeley, and any editor or reporter or saucy party committee that writes to him, and cheapen himself. But this must we be ready for, and let the clown appear, and hug ourselves that we are well off, if we have got good nature, honest meaning, and fidelity to public interest, with bad manners, - instead of an elegant roue and malignant self-seeker. From the journal of Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1863

Sunday, November 12, 2017

History Rewritten - 15

“They have prostituted their culture.  I went to Cherokee this summer.  I could only stay two days.” -Vernon Bellecourt, American Indian Movement leader

I  remember a book reviewer who criticized a memoir for being “too self-absorbed.” Well!  Isn’t that the point?  What part of AUTO-biography don’t you understand?

I don’t want to fall into a similar trap by criticizing a Cherokee legend for “being made up.” Yes, you could say that for any legend.  Somebody made it up. But this particular instance is too egregious to overlook. Western Carolina University and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians have a long history of  enabling each other, with questionable results.  (Whatever happened to the much-hyped Oconaluftee Institute of Cultural Arts?) 

The latest news on this front concerns the decision to rename a building on the campus in Cullowhee for the legendary Cherokee creature “Judaculla.”  From the news release: Judaculla refers to a great giant who, according to Cherokee legend, resided in the Cullowhee Valley along the Tuckaseigee River. Judaculla Rock, located south of campus, is a large soapstone boulder linked to the Judaculla legend that contains some of the most significant petroglyphs east of the Mississippi River.

[EBCI Principal Chief Richard] Sneed described Judaculla as a “great teacher who taught humans how to live in this place” by teaching them the languages of the birds, forest animals and fish so they could educate people after he left. “Western Carolina University is built in ‘joolth-cullah-wee’ – or Judaculla’s place, which we’ve shortened to Cullowhee – a seat of higher education in the place of a great teacher,” he said. I wonder how you say “unmitigated gall” in Cherokee? For purposes of this discussion, let’s agree that there are “authentic” legends and then there are “fake” legends.  The “real” story of Judaculla and Cullowhee certainly contrasts with the horse hockey shoveled by Chief Sneed.

Judaculla, ca. 1823

The name “Judaculla” has been rendered in various spellings over the years, including: Jutaculla, Juthaculla, Tsu ‘kalu, among others.  As far as we know, the first published account of Judaculla came in John Haywood’s 1823 book, The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee: Up to the First Settlements Therein by the White People, in the Year 1768: The [Cherokee] have a fabulous tradition respecting the mounds, which proves that they are beyond the events of their history. The mounds, they say, were caused by the quaking of the earth, and great noise with it. A ceremony used for the adoption of their people into the family of Tuli-cula, who was an invisible person, and had taken a wife of one of their town's people. And at the time when his first son was born, this quaking of the earth and noise had commenced; but had ceased at the alarm whoop, which had been raised by two imprudent young men of the town. In consequence of which, the mounds had been raised by the quaking noise. Whereupon the father took the child and mother, and removed to near Brass-town, and had made the tracks in the rocks which are to be seen there. That last sentence is a reference to the Track Rock petroglyphs near Blairsville, Georgia.  Of course, Judaculla came to be more closely associated with a somewhat similar collection of petroglyphs near Cullowhee, NC, known as Judaculla Rock.

Judaculla, ca. 1883

Subsequent references to Tuli-cula/Judaculla were scarce in the 19th century.  Though not mentioned by name, Wilbur G. Zeigler and Ben S. Grosscup related the local legends about the environs inhabited by Judaculla in their 1883 book, The Heart of the Alleghanies: Old Field mountain, in the Balsam range, derives its name from the tradition that it was Satan's bed-chamber. The Cherokees of a recent generation affirm that his royal majesty was often seen by their forefathers, and even some of the first white settlers had knowledge of his presence. On the top of the mountain there is a prairie-like tract, almost level, reached by steep slopes covered with thickets of balsam and rhododendron, which seem to garrison the reputed sacred domain. It was understood among the Indians to be forbidden territory, but a party one day permitted their curiosity to tempt them. They forced a way through the entangled thickets, and with merriment entered the open ground. Aroused from sleep and enraged by their audacious intrusion, the devil, taking the form of an immense snake, assaulted the party and swallowed of them before the thicket could be regained. Among the first whites who settled among the Indians and traded with them, was a party of hunters who used this superstition to escape punishment for their reprehensible conduct. They reported that they were in league with the great spirit of evil, and to prove that they were, frequented this "old field.” They described his bed, under a large overhanging rock, as a model of neatness. They had frequently thrown into it stones and brushwood during the day, while the master was out, but the place was invariably as clean the next morning "as if it had been brushed with a bunch of feathers. " But there is another legend of the Balsams more significant than any of these. It is the Paradise Gained of Cherokee mythology, and bears some distant resemblance to the Christian doctrine of mediation. The Indians believed that they were originally mortal in spirit as well as body, but above the blue vault of heaven there was, inhabited by a celestial race, a forest into which the highest mountains lifted their dark summits. It is a fact worth noticing that, while the priests of the orient described heaven as a great city with streets of gold and gates of pearl and fine gems, the tribes of the western continent aspired to nothing beyond the perpetual enjoyment of wild nature. The mediator, by whom eternal life was secured for the Indian mountaineers, was a maiden of their own tribe. Allured by the haunting sound and diamond sparkle of a mountain stream, she wandered far up into a solitary glen, where the azalea, the kalmia, and the rhododendron brilliantly embellished the deep, shaded slopes, and filled the air with their delicate perfume. The crystal stream wound its crooked way between moss covered rocks over which tall ferns bowed their graceful stems.  Enchanted by the scene she seated herself upon the soft moss and overcome by fatigue was soon asleep. The dream picture of a fairyland was presently broken by the soft touch of a strange hand. The spirit of her dream occupied a place at her side, and wooing, won her for his bride. Her supposed abduction caused great excitement among her people, who made diligent search for her recovery in their own villages. Being unsuccessful, they made war upon the neighboring tribes in the hope of finding the place of her concealment. Grieved because of so much bloodshed and sorrow, she besought the great chief of the eternal hunting grounds to make retribution. She was accordingly appointed to call a council of her people at the forks of the Wayeh (Pigeon) river.  She appeared unto the chiefs in a dream, and charged them to meet the spirits of the hunting ground with fear and reverence. At the hour appointed the head men of the Cherokees assembled. The high Balsam peaks were shaken by thunder and aglare with lightning. The cloud, as black as midnight, settled over the valley; then lifted, leaving upon a large rock a cluster of strange men, armed and painted as for war. An enraged brother of the abducted maiden swung his tomahawk, and raised the war whoop; but a swift thunderbolt dispatched him before the echo had died in the hills. The chiefs, terror-stricken, fled to their towns. The bride, grieved by the death of her brother and the failure of the council, prepared to abandon her new home and return to her kindred in the valleys. To reconcile her the promise was granted that all brave warriors and their faithful women should have an eternal home in the happy hunting ground above, after death. The great chief of the forest beyond the clouds became the guardian spirit of the Cherokees. All deaths, either from wounds in battle or disease, were attributed to his desire to make additions to the celestial hunting ground, or on the other hand, to his wrath which might cause their unfortunate spirits to be turned over to the disposition of the evil genius of the mountain tops. Plagues and epidemics were sometimes supposed to be the work of sorcerers, witches and monsters, human and superhuman. The “old fields” mentioned in this account are now bisected by the Blue Ridge Parkway as it follows the Balsam Mountain Range along the border of Jackson and Haywood Counties.

Judaculla, ca. 1900

In his 1900 volume, Myths of the Cherokee, ethnologist James Mooney expanded upon the stories related by Zeigler and Grosscup: JUTACULLA OLD FIELDS: A bald spot of perhaps a hundred acres on the slope of Tennessee bald (Tsul`kälû' Tsunegûñ'yï), at the extreme bead of Tuckasegee river, in Jackson county, on the ridge from which the lines of Haywood, Jackson, and Transylvania counties diverge. The giant Tsul`kälû', or Jutaculla, as the name is corrupted by the whites, had his residence in the mountain (see story), and according to local legend among the whites, said to be derived from the Indians, this bald spot was a clearing which he made for a farm. Some distance farther to the west, on the north bank of Cany fork, about 1 mile above Moses creek and perhaps 10 miles above Webster, in the same county, is the Jutaculla rock, a large soapstone slab covered with rude carvings, which, according to the same tradition, are scratches made by the giant in jumping from his farm on the mountain to the creek below. From his Cherokee informants, Mooney collected the narrative of the Judaculla legend:
Tsul'kälû, The Slant-eyed Giant
A long time ago a widow lived with her one daughter at the old town of Känuga on Pigeon river. The girl was of age to marry, and her mother used to talk with her a good deal, and tell her she must be sure to take no one but a good hunter for a husband, so that they would have someone to take care of them and would always have plenty of meat in the house. The girl said such a man was hard to find, but her mother advised her not to be in a hurry, and to wait until the right one came. Now the mother slept in the house while the girl slept outside in the âsï. One dark night a stranger came to the âsï wanting to court the girl, but she told him her mother would let her marry no one but a good hunter. "Well," said the stranger, "I am a great hunter," so she let him come in, and he stayed all night. Just before day he said he must go back now to his own place, but that he had brought some meat for her mother, and she would find it outside. Then he went away and the girl had not seen him. When day came she went out and found there a deer, which she brought into the house to her mother, and told her it was a present from her new sweetheart. Her mother was pleased, and they had deersteaks for breakfast. He came again the next night, but again went away before daylight, and this time he left two deer outside. The mother was more pleased this time, but said to her daughter, "I wish your sweetheart would bring us some wood." Now wherever he might be, the stranger knew their thoughts, so when he came the next time he said to the girl, "Tell your mother I have brought the wood"; and when she looked out in the morning there were several great trees lying in front of the door, roots and branches and all. The old woman was angry, and said, "He might have brought us some wood that we could use instead of whole trees that we can't split, to litter up the road with brush." The hunter knew what she said, and the next time he came he brought nothing, and when they looked out in the morning the trees were gone and there was no wood at all, so the old woman had to go after some herself. Almost every night he came to see the girl, and each time he brought a deer or some other game, but still he always left before daylight. At last her mother said to her, "Your husband always leaves before daylight. Why don't he wait? I want to see what kind of a son-in-law I have." When the girl told this to her husband he said he could not let the old woman see him, because the sight would frighten her. "She wants to see you, anyhow," said the girl, and began to cry, until at last he had to consent, but warned her that her mother must not say that he looked frightful (usga'së`ti'yu). The next morning he did not leave so early, but stayed in the âsï, and when it was daylight the girl went out and told her mother. The old woman came and looked in, and there she saw a great giant, with long slanting eyes (tsul`kälû'), lying doubled up on the floor, with his head against the rafters in the left-hand corner at the back, and his toes scraping the roof in the right-hand corner by the door. She gave only one look and ran back to the house, crying, Usga'së`ti'yu! Usga'së`ti'yu! Tsul`kälû' was terribly angry. He untwisted himself and came out of the âsï, and said good-bye to the girl, telling her that he would never let her mother see him again, but would go back to his own country. Then he went off in the direction of Tsunegûñ'yï. Soon after he left the girl had her monthly period. There was a very great flow of blood, and the mother threw it all into the river. One night after the girl had gone to bed in the âsï her husband came again to the door and said to her, "It seems you are alone," and asked where was the child. She said there had been none. Then he asked where was the blood, and she said that her mother had thrown it into the river. She told just where the place was, and he went there and found a small worm in the water. He took it up and carried it back to the âsï, and as he walked it took form and began to grow, until, when he reached the âsï, it was a baby girl that he was carrying. He gave it to his wife and said, "Your mother does not like me and abuses our child, so come and let us go to my home." The girl wanted to be with her husband, so, after telling her mother good-bye, she took up the child and they went off together to Tsunegûñ'yï. Now, the girl had an older brother, who lived with his own wife in another settlement, and when he heard that his sister was married he came to pay a visit to her and her new husband, but when he arrived at Känuga his mother told him his sister had taken her child and gone away with her husband, nobody knew where. He was sorry to see his mother so lonely, so he said he would go after his sister and try to find her and bring her back. It was easy to follow the footprints of the giant, and the young man went along the trail until he came to a place where they had rested, and there were tracks on the ground where a child had been lying and other marks as if a baby had been born there. He went on along the trail and came to another place where they had rested, and there were tracks of a baby crawling about and another lying on the ground. He went on and came to where they had rested again, and there were tracks of a child walking and another crawling about. He went on until he came where they had rested again, and there were tracks of one child running and another walking. Still he followed the trail along the stream into the mountains, and came to the place where they had rested again, and this time there were footprints of two children running all about, and the footprints can still be seen in the rock at that place. Twice again he found where they had rested. and then the trail led up the slope of Tsunegûñ'yï, and he heard the sound of a drum and voices, as if people were dancing inside the mountain. Soon he came to n eave like a doorway in the side of the mountain, but the rock was so steep and smooth that he could not climb tip to it, but could only just look over the edge and see the heads and shoulders of a great many people dancing inside. He saw his sister dancing among them and called to her to come out. She turned when she heard his voice, and as soon as the drumming stopped for a while she came out to him, finding no trouble to climb down the rock, and leading her two little children by the hand. She was very glad to meet her brother and talked with him a long time, but did not ask him to come inside, and at last he went away without having seen her husband. Several other times her brother came to the mountain, but always his sister met him outside, and he could never see her husband. After four years had passed she came one day to her mother's house and said her husband had been hunting in the woods nearby, and they were getting ready to start home to-morrow, and if her mother and brother would come early in the morning they could see her husband. If they came too late for that, she said, they would find plenty of meat to take home. She went back into the woods, and the mother ran to tell her son. They came to the place early the next morning, but Tsul`kälû' and his family were already gone. On the drying poles they found the bodies of freshly killed deer hanging, as the girl had promised, and there were so many that they went back and told all their friends to come for them, and there were enough for the whole settlement. Still the brother wanted to see his sister and her husband, so he went again to the mountain, and she came out to meet him. He asked to see her husband, and this time she told him to come inside with her. They went in as through a doorway, and inside he found it like a great townhouse. They seemed to be alone, but his sister called aloud, "He wants to see you," and from the air came a voice, "You cannot see me until you put on a new dress, and then you can see me." "I am willing," said the young man, speaking to the unseen spirit, and from the air came the voice again, "Go back, then, and tell your people that to see me they must go into the townhouse and fast seven days, and in all that time they must not come out from the townhouse or raise the war whoop, and on the seventh day I shall come with new dresses for you to put on so that you can all see me." The young man went back to Känuga and told the people. They all wanted to see Tsul`kälû', who owned all the game in the mountains, so they went into the townhouse and began the fast. They fasted the first day and the second and every day until the seventh-all but one man from another settlement, who slipped out every night when it was dark to get something to eat and slipped in again when no one was watching. On the morning of the seventh day the sun was just coming up in the east when they beard a great noise like the thunder of rocks rolling down the side of Tsunegûñ'yï. They were frightened and drew near together in the townhouse, and no one whispered. Nearer and louder came the sound until it grew into an awful roar, and every one trembled and held his breath-all but one man, the stranger from the other settlement, who lost his senses from fear and ran out of the townhouse and shouted the war cry. At once the roar stopped and for some time there was silence. Then they heard it again, but as if it where going farther away, and then farther and farther, until at last it died away in the direction of Tsunegûñ'yï, and then all was still again. The people came out from the townhouse, but there was silence, and they could see nothing but what had been seven days before. Still the brother was not disheartened, but came again to see his sister, and she brought him into the mountain. He asked why Tsul`kälû' had not brought the new dresses, as he had promised, and the voice from the air said, "I came with them, but you did not obey my word, but broke the fast and raised the war cry." The young man answered, "It was not done by our people, but by a stranger. If you will come again, we will surely do as you say." But the voice answered, "Now you can never see me." Then the young man could not say any more, and he went back to Känuga.

Judaculla ca. 1974

So far, we have found no basis for Chief Sneed’s assertion that Judaculla was a “great teacher.”  In 1974, the Eastern Band published an environmental reconnaissance report and did mention Judaculla: Tsui kalu' - "Slanting-eyes", literally "he has them slanting" (or leaning up against something" ; the prefix ts makes it a plural form, and the name is understood to refer to the eyes, although the word eye (akta' , plural dikta' ) is not a part of it. Cf. Ata'-Gulkalu' . A mythic giant and ruler of the game. The name has been corrupted to Jutaculla and Tuli-cula. Jutaculla rock and Jutaculla old fields about the head of Tuckasegee river, in Jackson, N.C, take their name from him. One more bit of trivia, though I have not been able to confirm it:  supposedly, the Cherokee version of the Holy Bible translates “Goliath” as “Judaculla.” It is safe to say that Judaculla’s promotion to a “Professor” educating his people in “the languages of the birds, forest animals and fish” did not occur until 2017.  Funny that we see such an uproar on the WCU campus when BB&T is perceived as propagandizing the curriculum, but when the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians takes similar measures to enlist the university in legitimizing a false history of the native people of the Southern Appalachians, there is nary a peep of protest.  What a crock!

"Cullowhee" No Longer the "Valley of Lilies?"

Let’s move on to the Chief’s other fanciful claim, concerning the name “Cullowhee:” “Western Carolina University is built in ‘joolth-cullah-wee’ – or Judaculla’s place, which we’ve shortened to Cullowhee – a seat of higher education in the place of a great teacher.” No, it’s not.  Another fabrication.  Who cooked up that one? As with so much native toponymy, the origins of “Cullowhee” aren’t entirely clear.  We’ve often heard that it means “Valley of the Lilies.”  And Western Carolina University was quick to jump on that bandwagon a couple of years ago, raising funds through the sale of the legendary “Cullowhee lily.”

"Cullowhee" Derived from "Gulahiyi"

Let’s go back to that 1974 report, published by the Cherokees themselves, which explained the origin of the name “Cullowhee”: Gulahi 'yi (abbreviated Gulahi', or Gurahl', in the Lower dialect) - "Gula'hi place", so-called from the unidentified spring plant eaten as a salad by the Cherokee. The name of two or more places in the old Cherokee country; one about Currahee mountain, in Habersham Co., Ga., the other on Cullowhee river, an upper branch of Tuckasegee, in Jackson Co., N. C. Currahee Dick was a noted chief about the year 1820. Gulahiyi, eh? Google that name and see what you get.  A difference between two dialects of the Cherokee language is that the “l” sound in one dialect (i.e. Culla-) becomes an “r” sound in the other dialect (i.e. Curra-).  Hence, when the name of the plant known as Gulohi/Gulahiyi/Gulahi evolved, it turned into Cullowhee in one dialect and Currahee in the other. I suppose if the Chief had taken part in the grand opening of the Currahee Brewery in Franklin, NC, he would have explained that “Currahee” is Cherokee for “refreshing beverage place.”

Follow the Money

Now, more than ever, it is mutually convenient for WCU and EBCI to “collaborate.”  In this series, I’ve documented many instances of the Eastern Band’s fraudulent accounts of history.  And the WCU faculty is a useful accomplice in such cultural "crimes" by validating the myth that Cherokees have occupied the Southern Appalachians since "time immemorial." On the other side of the coin, WCU is eager to reach out to prospective students from Cherokee.  By the time they reach the age of 18, they are (or soon will be) cash cows, with more money than they know what to do with.  People selling big trucks, people selling double-wides, people selling drugs…they’ve lined up to get some of the cash these young people have at their disposal.  Why wouldn’t the university want to get a place in that line and rake in a healthy share of money from the cash-laden young Cherokees?  If it helps to take liberties with Cherokee history to close the deal, then why not?  Plaster the campus with Sequoyah's syllabary.  Translate Ayn Rand into Cherokee if the money’s there!

A Judaculla Legend from the Catawbas

In the course of researching this story, I stumbled upon another version of the Judaculla legend from the mid-19th century.  The Catawba Indians related the story of a Cherokee hunter, Tsudu ‘kula. As the Catawbas told it, Tsudu ‘kula was the first Cherokee to carry a rifle for hunting.  As he roamed the mountains he took all the game he wanted, large and small, bear and deer, squirrel and quail: Tsudu ‘kula was a skilled marksman and ate well.  Other Cherokee hunters, with their bows and arrows, could barely secure enough meat for the table.  But Tsudu ‘kula retired deep into the woods, camping by himself, and waiting for the animals to come within range of his rifle. He became lazy and complacent.  Often, while sitting next to a tree, watching and waiting for a deer or elk to show up, he would doze off. One night, while he was sleeping, strange sounds and lights approached from the distance.  It was the sound of many bells ringing and lights of all colors, glowing and flashing.  Tsudu ‘kula awoke from his slumber to observe the oncoming apparition and in the midst of it a lovely maiden clad in shimmering gowns. Standing before Tsudu ‘kula, she spoke: “Fear not. I am Hara, Queen of Good Fortune.  I have travelled a great distance from the west.” Tsudu ‘kula was bewildered, “Why have you come here, to this place?“ “I grew weary of the arid desert and wished to live upon the cool rushing streams and blue mountains of your homeland.” Tsudu ‘kula set aside his gun and stood before Hara.  His time in the woods had almost erased his awareness of what it was to be lonely, but with the beautiful Queen Hara in his presence, he suddenly longed for female companionship.  The jewel-like colors reflecting from Hara’s eyes and lips shone especially bright, revealing her own attraction to Tsudu ‘kula. “Queen Hara, come with me, and I will show you the sunrise over the Smoky Mountains.” They watched the light of dawn, and spent the whole day walking together, speaking of the times that had been and the times that were to come.  Hara’s splendor cast a spell upon the solitary Cherokee hunter that some people had called “simple-minded.”  He had always been content with his independent life in the woods, but this woman stirred his strongest desires. She spoke to Tsudu ‘kula, “In my right hand I carry good luck and ceaseless pleasure.  Pledge your loyalty to me.  Carry out my bidding and we shall possess great treasure, sleek horses, and a palace of a home overlooking the valley of Oconaluftee.” “To partake of all that, I will gladly do anything that you ask of me.” Hara smiled at Tsudu ‘kula and replied, “Know that I am a jealous queen.  For me to remain here with you, bestowing good luck and plenty, then the gods that your people venerate – Kanati and Selu – must be expelled.” Tsudu ‘kula was taken aback.  “But Kanati is the god of game, and Selu the goddess of corn.  How could we survive without them?” “Be not afraid.  With the gifts I bring, your people will have no need of Kanati and Selu.  Combing the mountains for meat, or tilling the soil to raise crops – these things will no longer be required to live in comfort.” “But what if the people prefer to live as they always have, hunting and farming?” “You were content with the way you had lived until you obtained your gun.  Only then did you discover how it made your life easier, how much of a struggle it had been to hunt with a bow and arrows.  It is not your place to seek the will of your people.  They know not what they are missing, and what I bring them.  You and your people shall attain joys that are beyond imagination.  Carry out my will in this matter, as you have promised.” “And what is it that you command me to do?” Queen Hara looked squarely at Tsudu ‘kula. “Kanati and Selu must go. I came to you because you are the one man skilled in the use of a gun.  You must go this very day to the home of Kanati and Selu and slay them on the spot…without hesitation.” “Is there no other way?” “I have commanded that which I have commanded.  Fulfill your promise.  And then, no more shall you or your people speak of Kanati and Selu. My right hand carries good fortune and satisfaction, but my left hand wields misfortune and disappointment.” Tsudu ‘kula faithfully completed the grim task assigned to him by Hara.  He shot them both and carried their bodies to a mountain peak where the vultures carried them away, piece by piece. Queen Hara took Tsudu ‘kula as her husband.  As she had promised, great wealth and luxury came to the Cherokee people.  Such was the magic of the rewards bestowed upon them by Hara.  They adorned their bodies with fine jewels and precious metals.  They had tables laden with the richest of food and drink.  They rode beautiful horses.  They were satisfied to think no more of Kanati and Selu.  They were glad to forget the hard labor of their lives before Hara appeared. Unfortunately, the happy times did not last for long.  A malaise set in among the children of Queen Hara and Tsudu ‘kula.  Though drowning in abundance, they knew no contentment, but grew jealous of one another’s horses and mates and jewelry.  They ate without restraint of fat meat and sweet cakes, becoming weak and ill.  As the riches flowed from the right hand of Hara, their ennui deepened.  They spent their days rolling dice and playing other games of chance, dulling their pain and boredom in clouds of intoxication and confusion.  Tsudu ‘kula grew old and reflected on his days of contentment long past, hunting game in the woods.  He died broken-hearted at what had happened to his people.  Queen Hara grew old as well, and all the glamour and splendor of her youth faded.  She suffered a stroke, losing the use of the right side of her body.  The only thing she had left to dispense was misfortune and disappointment.

Wednesday, November 8, 2017

Buried Alive in WNC

This evening, I was watching a documentary on Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849) when something caught my attention.  The narrator mentioned Poe’s 1844 story “The Premature Burial,” which was based on a phenomenon often reported in the nineteenth century – the burial of those who were not yet dead.


 Flashing across the screen was the image of an old newspaper article, dateline “Asheville, NC.”  Thank goodness for DVR! 

After collecting a few details, I found the article, published February 21, 1885 in the New York Times under the headline “What His Friends Discovered When the Coffin Was Opened”

ASHEVILLE, N.C., Feb. 20 –A gentleman from Flat Creek Township in this (Buncombe) County, furnishes the information that about the 20th of last month a young man by the name of Jenkins, who had been sick with fever for several weeks, was thought to have died. He became speechless, his flesh was cold and clammy, and he could not be aroused, and there appeared to be no action of the pulse and heart. He was thought to be dead and was prepared for burial, and was noticed at the time that there was no stiffness in any of the limbs. He was buried after his supposed death, and when put in the coffin it was remarked that he was as limber as a live man. There was much talk in the neighborhood about the case and the opinion was frequently expressed that Jenkins had been buried alive. Nothing was done about the matter until the 10th inst., when the coffin was taken up for the purpose of removal and internment in the family burying ground in Henderson County. The coffin being wood, it was suggested that it be opened in order to see if the body was in such condition that it could be hauled 20 miles without being put in a metallic casket. The coffin was opened, and to the great astonishment and horror of his relatives the body was lying face downward, and the hair had been pulled from the head in great quantities, and there were scratches of the finger nails on the inside of the lid and sides of the coffin. These facts caused great excitement and all acquainted personally with the facts believe Jenkins was in a trance, or that animation was apparently suspended, and that he was not really dead when buried and that he returned to consciousness only to find himself buried and beyond help. The body was then taken to Henderson County and reinterred. The relatives are distressed beyond measure at what they term criminal carelessness in not being absolutely sure Jenkins was dead before he was buried.

Friday, October 13, 2017

History Rewritten - 14

Here’s one more follow-up to the list of ancient stone works of the Southern Appalachians, as compiled by Cyrus Thomas in 1891.

. beltany stonecircle
Beltany Stone Circle, Ireland
The list is especially rich for Habersham County and nearby areas of North Georgia.  I've always found the Habersham vicinity appealing, possessing a subtle ambience that is hard for me to explain.  I won't say that no Cherokees ever occupied Habersham, but the best evidence I've encountered suggests they had little presence there until late historic times (late 18th/early 19th century to be more precise). So, who left the stoneworks in Habersham?  Welsh laborers under the command of Prince Madoc? Phoenicians?  Celts? Mayans? Spanish miners? Moon-eyed people?  The various theories are interesting, but I'm not going to sensationalize things with any far-fetched argument of my own.  I'll leave that to others and remain focused on the evidence. Among the many intriguing entries for Habersham County, Georgia are several stone circles, including this: “Stone circle 85 feet in diameter, with walls originally 4 feet high, on Aleck Mountain, 7 miles northwest of Clarkesville.  Reported by James Mooney.” In April 1848, while visiting the Nacoochee Valley (near Helen, Georgia), the intrepid Charles Lanman made mention of what was most likely the same stone circle: “…In this connection might also be mentioned the ruin of an old fort, which may now be seen a few miles north of Nacoochee valley. It is almost obliterated from the face of the earth, but its various ramparts can be easily traced by the careful observer. Its purpose we can easily divine, but with regard to its history even the Indians are entirely ignorant.” The imagination can run wild about this circle of stones atop Alec/Aleck Mountain. The report of one excavation of this circle, in 1956, adds enough detail to fuel even more speculation.     Phillip E. Smith wrote “Aboriginal Stone Constructions in the Southern Piedmont” in a March 1962 report for the University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology: The existence of a stone circle or 'fort" near the summit of Alec Mountain, in Habersham County, Georgia, has been noted in several 19th century documentary sources, such as Lanman and Thomas. It is situated about 7 miles north of Clarkesville, about a thousand feet off the country road leading across Alec Mountain, and appears to be located precisely on the spine of this long ridge. This site was partially excavated by the writer in June and July, 1956. Two trenches each 5 feet wide and 2 feet deep were dug across the length and breadth of the circles, and a pit 5 feet in depth was dug in the center at the point of intersection. In addition, two smaller test pits were sunk in other sectors, one trench was dug outside the wall, and the wall itself was removed in four sections to determine its structure.
  alec schema

 These investigations are shown on the attached map. No artifacts were recovered in the course of the excavations, nor were any found on the surface. A great deal of charcoal was observed at depths of about one foot throughout the excavated areas, but this took the form of carbonized roots, most probably burned by natural action. No evidence of hearths or other occupation was observed. Below the 1-foot level the earth, which was the typical North Georgia heavy red clay, appeared undisturbed except for occasional root action. A small rectangle of flat stones near the north end was excavated completely but nothing was recovered, and it might be well to take seriously the information given by local inhabitants that this rectangle was built by Boy Scouts in the last decade. The form of this structure is that of a broad oval rather than an exact circle. The north-south outside diameter is approximately 107 feet while the east-west length is 92 feet. The wall averages 8 feet in width and 3 to 4 feet in height. The excavations indicate that it was built directly on the original ground surface and has no real subsoil foundation, a feature common to the other structures examined. It is composed of rather small rough stones, easily carried and readily collected from the surrounding surface, piled casually with no attempt at arrangement in regular tiers. The enclosure is built on a relatively flat area on the spine of the ridge but although a deep gully lies on one side and fairly steep slope on the other it does not give the impression of being a defensive structure. No documentary evidence has been located to justify the local designation of "Old Spanish Fort."  It can be easily approached from the south and north directions, and there are a number of other positions in the immediate neighborhood which offer better defensive advantages if such were desired. There is no source of water in the enclosure. The earliest reference known to the writer concerning this structure is by a traveler named Lanman, who in a book published in 1849 mentions this "fort" and states that neither the white settlers nor the preceding Cherokee inhabitants could give any explanation of its origin. That it antedates the Pioneer occupation of the area therefore seems fairly certain.

Friday, October 6, 2017

History Rewritten - 13

The prior post was a condensed list from Catalogue of Prehistoric Works East of the Rocky Mountains (1891), by Cyrus Thomas.  Though they have all but disappeared now, many stone cairns were on that list.
James Mooney, in Myths of the Cherokee (1900), went into some detail about the cairns, their location, and the occasion for their construction:
Cairns—Stone cairns were formerly very common along the trails throughout the Cherokee country, but are now almost gone, having been demolished by treasure hunters after the occupation of the country by the whites. They were usually sepulchral monuments built of large stones piled loosely together above the body to a height of sometimes 6 feet or more, with a corresponding circumference. This method of interment was used only when there was a desire to commemorate the death, and every passer-by was accustomed to add a stone to the heap. The custom is ancient and world-wide, and is still kept up in Mexico and in many parts of Europe and Asia….
DEGAL`GÛÑ'YÏ: "Where they are piled up," a series of cairns on both sides of the trail down the south side of Cheowa river, in Graham county. They extend along the trail for several miles, from below Santeetla creek nearly to Slick Rock creek, on the Tennessee line (the first being just above Disgâ'gisti'yï, q. v.), and probably mark the site of an ancient battle. One at least, nearly off Yellow creek, is reputed to be the grave of a Cherokee killed by the enemy. Every passing Indian throws an additional stone upon each heap, believing that some misfortune will befall him should he neglect this duty. Other cairns are on the west side of Slick Rock creek about a mile from Little Tennessee river, and others south of Robbinsville, near where the trail crosses the ridge to Valleytown, in Cherokee county….
On the southern slope of the ridge, along the trail from Robbinsville to Valley river, in Cherokee county, North Carolina, are the remains of a number of stone cairns. The piles are leveled now, but thirty years ago the stones were still heaped up into pyramids, to which every Cherokee who passed added a stone. According to the tradition these piles marked the graves of a number of women and children of the tribe who were surprised and killed on the spot by a raiding party of the Iroquois shortly before the final peace between the two Nations. As soon as the news was brought to the settlements on Hiwassee and Cheowa a party was made under Tâle'tanigi'skï, "Hemp-carrier," to follow and take vengeance on the enemy…. 
For days they followed the trail of the Iroquois across the Great Smoky mountains, through forests and over rivers, until they finally tracked them to their very town in the far northern Seneca country. On the way they met another war party headed for the south, and the Cherokee killed them all and took their scalps. When they came near the Seneca town it was almost night, and they heard shouts in the townhouse, where the women were dancing over the fresh Cherokee scalps. The avengers hid themselves near the spring, and as the dancers came down to drink the Cherokee silently killed one and another until they had counted as many scalps as had been taken on Cheowa, and still the dancers in the townhouse never thought that enemies were near. 
Then said the Cherokee leader, "We have covered the scalps of our women and children. Shall we go home now like cowards, or shall we raise the war whoop and let the Seneca know that we are men?" "Let them come, if they will," said his men; and they raised the scalp yell of the Cherokee. At once there was an answering shout from the townhouse, and the dance came to a sudden stop. The Seneca warriors swarmed out with ready gun and hatchet, but the nimble Cherokee were off and away. There was a hot pursuit in the darkness, but the Cherokee knew the trails and were light and active runners, and managed to get away with the loss of only a single man. The rest got home safely, and the people were so well pleased with Hemp-carrier's bravery and success that they gave him seven wives….
John Henry Logan, in A History of the Upper Country of South Carolina (1859) said this about the stone cairns of the Cherokee:
They frequently raised monumental piles of loose stones on the tops of their mountains, hills, and near famous passes. These were in honor of departed chiefs, and other great men. Sometimes the stones were collected and piled on the very spot where a distinguished warrior had fallen in battle; and though rough and unlettered, these rude monuments have mocked, in their durability, thousands of structures of marble and brass, whose exquisite forms were carved and fashioned by the hand of genius and civilization. Many of them are standing at this day, nearly as entire as when the last stone was placed upon their conical summits, at a period in the fabulous past, up to which no history runneth. But whether standing erect or scattered promiscuously around their original sites, they are equally monumental, and never fail to teach the curious passer-by the simple story they contain of aboriginal history.
An old chronicler [the trader James Adair] observes: "To perpetuate the memory of any remarkable warriors killed in the woods, I must here remark that every Indian traveler, as he passes that way, throws a stone on the place, according as lie likes or dislikes the occasion or manner of the death of the deceased. In the woods we often see innumerable heaps of small stories in those places, where, according to tradition, some of their distinguished people were either killed or buried, and their bones suffered to remain till they could be gathered for regular sepulture at home. On these piles they added Pelion to Ossa, still increasing each heap, as a lasting monument and honor to them, and an incentive to great actions."
Several of these Indian cairns were standing a few years ago, on the romantic top of Gilkey's Knob near Limestone Springs. They were built of white quartz rocks, and looked, in the deep shade of the huge chestnut oaks that surrounded them, like so many motionless spectres on a visit from the blest abodes of the ancient warriors in whose memory they were reared….
From the Charles C. Jones classic, Antiquities of the Southern Indians (1873):  
In order to designate the grave of a remarkable warrior, who had fallen in battle, and whose body could not at the time be brought home by his companions, the Cherokees and other nations inhabiting hilly regions were wont to cover the body of the slain with stones collected on the spot. Every passer-by contributed his stone to the pile, until it rose into a marked and permanent memorial of the dead….
At a point where a decisive battle had been fought between the Carolinians, under General Middleton, and the Cherokees, in which many of the latter had been killed, and the survivors compelled to abandon their settlements in the low countries and betake themselves for safety to inaccessible retreats in the mountains, Bartram observed " vast heaps of stones," indicating the graves of the red warriors who had perished during the conflict….
In various parts of middle and Cherokee Georgia these stone-piles have attracted our notice. They consist simply of fragments of rock and loose bowlders collected from the beds of adjacent streams, or picked up on the surface of the ground, and piled one upon the other until the structure attained an altitude of from three to twelve feet. It is intimated by some of the early travellers that these tumuli were temporary in their nature, and were designed merely as a protection to the bones of the dead, until they could be collected and carried home for interment in the burial-grounds of the tribe or community of which the deceased were members….
Indeed, the botanist William Bartram did observe cairns while traveling alongside the Little Tennessee River, several miles south of present-day Franklin, NC:
…surface of the land level but rough, being covered with stones or fragments of rocks, and very large, smooth pebbles of various shapes and sizes, some of ten or fifteen pounds weight: I observed on each side of the road many vast heaps of these stones, Indian graves undoubtedly. (Note –  At this place was fought a bloody and decisive battle between these Indians and the Carolinians, under the conduct of general Middleton, when a great number of Cherokee warriors were slain, which shook their power, terrified and humbled them, insomuch that they deserted most of their settlements in the low countries, and betook themselves to the mountains as less accessible to the regular forces of the white people.)
John Brickell explored much of North Carolina in the 1720s.  He mentioned cairns in The Natural History of North Carolina (1737):
They have other sorts of Monuments or Tombs for the dead, as where one was slain, in that very Place they raise a heap of Stones, if any are to be met with in the Place, if not, with Sticks, to his Memory; that every one that passeth by that place augments the Heap in respect of the deceas’d. Some Nations of these Indians have great rejoycing and Feasts at their Burials.
Modern fans of such curiosities have tried to find some significance in the clustering of stone cairns, suggesting they were more prevalent near the eastern continental divide.  If that is the case, and I’m not convinced, it could be that the invisible line between the headwaters of one river system and another was more likely to be a site of mortal conflict between tribes.  Who knows?
For a real stretch in explaining the stone piles, check out John Haywood’s 1823 book, The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee.  He claimed it was part of a native custom of stoning adulterous wives:
For they have a tradition that the stone hillocks which are at all the gaps in the mountains and other parts of the country were originally erected by the casting of stones upon women who had been guilty of adultery, and that their bodies were under them. The same practice anciently prevailed in the Crimea amongst the Tartars, whose law it was to make a hole in the ground of depth enough to cover the adulteress up to her chin; then to stone her to death, and to cover her with stones, thrown by hand upon the body.
Because the relatively small rock piles were even more vulnerable than mounds and were so often wrecked by curious treasure hunters, few were left for study modern archaeologists.  I did find one article in the archaeological literature that goes into considerable detail about stone piles in Georgia and surrounding areas. Recommended reading for anyone wanting to know more on this subject.
Historic Patterns of Rock Piling and the Rock Pile Problems.Thomas H. Gresham in Early Georgia, Volume 18 (1990)

Sunday, September 24, 2017

History Rewritten - 12

The ethnologist Cyrus Thomas (1825-1910) had a particular interest in mound building and discredited the prevailing theory of his time, that mounds were constructed by a race that prececded the Indians.  His Catalogue of Prehistoric Works East of the Rocky Mountains,  (1891) is a lengthy list of mounds, earthworks, petroglyphs, kjokkenmodding, and various aboriginal stone constructions.

After studying the Catalogue, I pared down the list, limiting the geographic coverage to North Georgia, Western North Carolina, Northwestern South Carolina and East Tennessee.   Further, I’ve removed listings for almost all the mounds within that territory.  My specific interest at the moment involves rock cairns, stone walls and similar stone structures.

A later post will discuss some of these, particularly the abundance of sites identified in Habersham County and the rest of North Georgia.  But for now, here’s an abridged list from Cyrus Thomas’ Catalogue:


Bartow County

"Indian Fort," or inclosure on the summit of a rocky hill which overlooks the Etowah River towards Rome, 2 1/2 miles northwest of the great Etowah Mounds. Figure and description by Charles Whittlesey, Smithsonian Report, 1881, pp. 627,628. Described also in the Atlanta Constitution, April 13, 1886.

Two rock graves, 2 1/2 miles west of Cartersville, on land of Miles Dobbins. Reported by John P. Rogan. 

 A mound encircled by a stone wall, at Adairsville. Reported by James D. Middleton.

Vault on William Burgess’s farm, 2 miles from Stilesborough, on Raccoon Creek. Copper specimen and stone image found.  Reported by J. P. Rogan.

Rock mound, near where the railway from Cartersville to Cedarville crosses Petit's Creek. Briefly described by Charles Whittlesey, Sm. Rep., 1881, p. 628. Reported by John P. Rogan.

Two rock graves 6 miles west of Cartersville. 

De Kalb County

Remains of a rock wall about half way up Stone Mountain. Described by C. C. Jones, Antiquities of the Southern Indians., pp. 207-208.

Douglas County

Stone cairn on road from Campbellton to Marietta, on ridge between Anawaka and Sweetwater Creeks. Reported by James Mooney.

Ancient fortifications on the western bank of the Chattahoochee River opposite the village of Campbellton. Mentioned in White's Historical Collections of Georgia, p. 293.

Elbert County

Ancient tumuli on the Savannah River visited by William Bartram in 1776, situated on the west bank of the Savannah, about 4 miles north of the mouth of Broad River. Bartram's Travels (1791), pp. 324, 325. Description chiefly from Bartram and figure by C. C. Jones, Sm. Rep., 1877, pp. 283-286. Explored by John P. Rogan. Described and figured in Report.

Floyd County

Two concentric stone circles inclosing an area of about 2 acres with walls 2 feet high on branch of 

Silver Creek, about 7 miles south of Borne.

Stone cairn on a hill near the preceding.

Stone cairn with two concentric stone circles, formerly stood on north bank of Etowah River just below mouth of Dyke's Creek.

Stone inclosure with walls about 3 1/2 feet high, area one-fourth of an acre, formerly on west side of 
Silver Creek, 7 1/2miles south of Rome.  Reported by James Mooney.

Gilmer County

Old mining excavations at Whitepath.

Circular earthwork near east bank of Ellijay River on Dillingham farm 2 miles above Ellijay.

Stone cairn on Parks farm on west bank of Ellijay River, 3 miles below Ellijay.  Reported by James Mooney.

Greene County

Stone mound on the form of Robert M. Grimes, near the southeast line of the county; also an earth mound to the west of the stone mound. Mentioned by Benj. W. Kent. Sm. Rep., 1882, p. 771.

Habersham County

Stone structure, horseshoe shape, 2 to 4 feet high, at Soquee post-office.

Circular earthwork about 30 feet in diameter, just east of last.

Several stone cairns along the road, just south of Soquee post-office.

Stone cairn on Tray Mountain.

Stone circle formerly on the hill above Glade Creek, on the road from Clarkesville to Tallulah Falls, 5 miles from Clarkesville.

Stone cairn on a ridge between Rabun and Habersham Counties, 2 miles west of Tallulah Falls.

Stone cairns on Soapstone Mountain, 5 miles southeast of Ayersville.

Large mound on east side of Soquee River, 1 mile above Deep Creek.

Stone wall nearly obliterated, on the east bank of Soquee River, about 4 miles above Clarkesville.

Stone cairn on north side of Toccoa Creek, 4 miles above its month.

Mound on the east bank of Soquee River, one-half mile above Clarkesville on the Wilson farm.

Stone cairn on the Ryan farm, 1 mile northeast of Clarkesville.

Stone cairns on the road, 1 mile north of Soquee post-office.

Stone cairn on the west bank of Soquee River, 2 miles below Clarkesville.

Stone circle 85 feet in diameter, with walls originally 4 feet high, on Aleck Mountain, 7 miles northwest of Clarkesville.  Reported by James Mooney.

Hancock County

Stone mound on a ridge 3 miles from Sparta, in a direction opposite to the circular work mentioned in the next item.  Mentioned by C. C. Jones, Antiq. So. Inds., p. 148.

Circular earthwork on the headwaters of the Great Ogeechee River, 5 miles from Sparta.  Brief description by C. C. Jones, Antiq. So. lnds., p. 148.

Murray County

Large stone and earthen circular work, walls formerly 12 feet high and inclosing an area of 8 or 10 acres, on Fort Mountain.

Putnam County

Bird-shaped mound of white quartz rock, inclosed by a stone circle, about 1 1/2 miles from Lawrence's ferry on the Oconee River.

Rock mounds containing graves, near Eatonton. Bones and a pipe shaped like an eagle's head, found in them.  Described and figured by C. C. Jones, 8m. Rep., 1877, pp. 278-282. Mentioned also by Benj. W. Kent, Sm. Rep., 1882, p. 770.

Stone tumuli, near Little River, below Pierson's Mill on the opposite side of the stream.  Mentioned by Benj. W. Kent, 8m. Rep., 1882, p. 771.

Rabun County

Stone cairns in Rabun Gap.

Stone cairns on the north side of Tuckaleegee Creek, a small branch of War Woman Creek.

Wall of large, dressed, uncemented stones, at Smith's Gold Mine, on the north side of Dick's Creek, 1 1/2 miles west of Burton post-office.  Discovered by gold washers.

Stone cairn, known as the ''Indian Grave," near Glassy Mountain, on the head of Tiger Creek.

Stone cairn on the ridge east of Tiger Creek and southeast of Glassy Mountain.  Reported by James Mooney.

A talc mine and stone implements on Piney Mountain. Mentioned in Science, vol. 9 (1887), p. 10.
Union County

Pictographs on large boulders in Track Rock Gap, 4 miles east of Blairsville. Reported by J. M. Spainhour.

Stone cairns at same gap.  Reported by J. M. Spainhour.

Stone cairns on east bank of Nottely River, midway between Arkuqua and Town Creeks. Largest, originally 15 feet high.

Stone cairn 1 mile west of Blairsville in “Wimpey Field."

White County

Stone cairns on ridge, 1 mile west of Tray Mountain.

Mound on east side of Sautee Creek, 1 mile above Chickamauga Creek.  Reported by James Mooney.

Subterranean or buried village "on Duke's Creek, 4 miles from Nacoochee Valley.  Described in 
White's Hist. Coll. Ga., pp. 487, 488; and Jones' Ant. So. Inds., p. 48.

“Rock walls on Mount Yonah."  Noticed by Jones, Ant. So. Inds., p. 208. (** Probably the large stone circle on Aleck Mountain in Habersham County, a few miles to the east.'' James Mooney.)

Wilkes County

Ancient remains consisting of inclosures, mounds, and excavations, some miles above Wrightsborough, on the north side of Little River.  Mentioned by Bartram, Travels, pp. 37,38; C. C. Jones, Antiq. So. Inds., p. 123.

North Carolina

Caldwell County

Cairn at Indian Grave Gap on Green Mountain, 4 1/2 miles due north of Lenoir, in the trail. No burial.

Cairn on Brushy Mountain, near a probable Indian trail, 1 1/2 miles north of Cedar Valley. No burial.

Cairn 6 1/2 miles southwest of Lenoir, between Lenoir and Icard Station (on Richmond and Danville road, above Hickory). No burial.

Cairn on Brushy Mountain, about three-fourths of a mile east of the one noted above. No burial.

Group of small cairns on the ridge west of John's River, extending for about a mile along the ridge, from 5 to 6 miles northwest of Collettsville. Unexplored.  Reported by J. M. Spainhour.

Catawba County

A rock shelter 7 miles from Catawba.  Reported by J. P. Rogan.

Cherokee County

Stone cairns on Whittaker farm, near mound at Valley River bridge.

Numerous stone cairns along trail from Tatham Bay south to Valley River, between Valley Town and Robbinsville.

Clay County

Cairns on the ridge north of Shooting Creek, near its head. Cairns on ridge about 1 mile south of Shooting Creek and 3 miles east of Hiwassee River. Two mounds, one of stone, adjacent to last.  Reported by J. W. Emmert.

Graham County

Numerous stone cairns along trail down south side of Chilhowee and Tennessee Rivers, extending about 6 miles from Santeetleh Creek into Tennessee.

Stone cairn on north bank of Chilhowee River, about 1 mile below Yellow Creek.  Reported by James Mooney.

Stone graves 3 miles below Robbinsville on a ridge near Chilhowee River.  Reported by J. W. Emmert.

Haywood County

Stone cairns 1 mile east of Waynesville.

Stone cairns (" mounds ") on Rathbone's land, on south side of Hurricane Creek. Unexplored. Reported by J. W. Emmert.

Stone cairns on east fork of Pigeon River. Location not definitely given.  Reported by James Mooney.
Macon County

Stone cairns (six) on southwest side of Cullasaja Creek nearly opposite mouth of Ellijay Creek.

Stone cairns on Howard farm on west bank of Tennessee River, 2 miles above Tesenta Creek.

Mound on west bank of Nantahela River, 2 miles below Jarretts.

Mound on east bank of Nantahela River opposite mouth of Cowe Creek.

Stone cairns on Cartooyaja Creek near mouth of Wayah Creek, about 7 miles west of Franklin.

Madison County

Cairn at Indian Grave Gap, in Walnut Mountain, at head of Brush and Walnut Creeks, on south side of road from Marshall to Burnsville. Reported by James Mooney.

Swain County

Stone cairn on ridge between Indian Creek and Cooper's Creek, about 3 miles northeast of Bryson City.

Stone cairns about 3 miles southeast of Bryson City, on trail crossing ridge between Tuckasegee River and Alarka Creek.

Wilkes County

Cairn at Boone's Gap on Boone's Fork of Warrior's Creek. Unexplored.  Reported by Dr.  J. M. Spainhour.

Cairn formerly 1 ½ miles north of cemetery mentioned above. Not a burial pile.
Explored by J. M. Spainhour.

South Carolina

Oconee County

Circular earthwork about 10 feet high on natural hill at Fort Hill, on east bank of Keowee River, about 4 miles below Twelve Mile Creek.  Reported by James Mooney.

Spartanburg County

Stone cairns formerly existed on the top of Gilkey’s Knob, near Limestone Springs.  Mentioned by 
Logan, Hist. S. C. (1859), p. 217.


Blount County.

Cemetery on the southeast bank of Ellejoy Creek, just below old Fort McTeer and about 7 miles east of Maryville. Reported by J. W. Enmert.

Three stone graves 3 miles from Chilhowee post-office, on the top of Chilhowee Mountain.
Reported by J. W. Emmert.  Identical with the "several rock graves or tombs near" two mounds (below) in Chilhowee Valley, mentioned by Dunnirig, Sm. Rep., 1870, pp. 376-380, and description partly quoted by Prof. Cyrus Thomas, Burial Mounds of the Northern Section (1888), pp. 78, 79.

Two cairns at the lower end of Chilhowee Mountain, about 2 miles northeast of Chilhowee post-office, and on the west side of the road in Montvale Springs.  Reported by J. W. Emmert.

Two cairns at Indian Grave Gap, near the north bank of Little Tennessee River, on the road from Chilhowee to North Carolina, above Chilhowee Valley. E. O. Dunning, Sm. Rep. (1870), pp. 376-380, and quoted in part by Cyrus Thomas, in Burial Mounds of the Northern Section (1888), pp. 78, 79.

Twenty-five cairns 4 miles southeast of Indian Grave Gap, mentioned above, on the west side of the same road.  Described by Dunning and quoted by Cyrus Thomas as above.

Cairns on both sides of the trail from Wear's Cove (on Cove Creek in Sevier County) to Tuckaleechee Cove (at Bricky Branch in Blonnt County) on the county line and extending into Sevier County.  Reported by James Mooney.

Carter County

Several cairns at Indian Grave Gap, where the road crosses north of Watauga River and about 1 mile north of Elizabethton.

Knox County

"Chimneys," ten or fifteen in number, like stone chimneys open at the top, washed out about 1882 in bottom on west bank of Tennessee (Holston) River just below the mouth of the French Broad.  Reported by James Mooney.

Monroe County

Cairns in the gap on the State line at the Slick Rock trail on the south side of the Little Tennessee River.

Stone graves (cists) about one hundred in number on Slick Rock Creek on the south side of Little Tennessee River.

Several stone graves on the east side of Citico Creek 5 miles from Little Tennessee River at Good Fields.

Sullivan County

Three stone graves on a bluff on the north bank of Holston River 4 miles southeast of Kingsport.

Three stone graves similar to the above on the north bank of the Holston 2 miles higher up. Explored and described by J. W. Emmert in Report.

Mound containing stone graves about 2 miles directly nortb of Kingsport and not far from the North Fork of Holston.  Reported by Cyrus Thomas. Described and illustrated in Burial Mounds of the Northern Section, pp. 75-77.

Cairns on the south side of the South Fork of Holston River 1/4 of a mile above Sharp's Creek, near Minnick's Ford.

Two stone graves on a bluff on the north side of the South Port of Holston River at Minnick's Ford. Reported by J. W. Emmert.

Sumner County

Group of mounds, with cemetery of stone graves and earthworks at Castalian (sulphur) Springs; on Bledsoe's Lick, and 8 miles northeast of Gallatin and 2 miles from Cragfont.  Described by Haywood, Nat. and Ab. Hist. Tenn. (1823), 121-1-26; noticed by Jones, Antiq. Tenn., p. 104.

Unicoi County

Grave cairns at Indian Grave Gap on the top of the Unaka Mountains on the State line about 4 miles southeast of Erwin. 

Washington County

Cairns on the south side of Watauga River, 1 mile above Roan's Creek.  Reported by James Mooney.

White County

Cemetery and earthworks on Caney Fork, about 4 miles southwest of Sparta.  Described by Haywood, Nat. and Ab. Hist. Tenn. (1823), p. 173.

Cemetery near Sparta. Explored.  Described by Haywood, Nat. and Ab. Hist. Tenn. (1823), pp. 200-209; mentioned by Jones, Antiq. Tenn., p. 8; brief notice by H. C. Williams, Sm. Rep. (1870), p. 368. He refers to the Sparta Review (newspaper) as containing a descriptive notice. Featherstonaugh describes the small stone graves of this locality in Excursion through Slave States, pp. 48-49.

Conical mound about 10 miles from Sparta.   Haywood, Nat. and Ab. Hist. Tenn., pp. 193-197.

Cemetery of stone coffins on Calf Killer Creek, 4 miles above Sparta.   Reported by James D. Middleton. One of them noted by Haywood Nat. and Ab. Hist. Tenn. (1823), p. 194.

"Old fortification," 5 or 6 miles from Sparta. Described by Haywood, Nat. and Ab. Hist. Tenn. (1823), p. 209.