Wednesday, May 22, 2019

In Search of Madoc - 6


Thomas Spottswood Hinde (April 19, 1785 – February 9, 1846) was an American newspaper editor, opponent of slavery, author, historian, real estate investor, Methodist minister and a founder of the city of Mount Carmel, Illinois.  A letter from Hinde appeared in The American Pioneer, A Monthly Periodical, Devoted to the Objects of the Logan Historical Society; Or, to Collecting and Publishing Sketches Relative to the Early Settlement and Successive Improvement of the Country, Volume I, 1842.  

FALLS OF THE OHIO

In the letter, Hinde shares an account of breastplates with "the Welsh coat-of-arms" recovered near the falls of the Ohio, supposed evidence of early travels by Prince Madoc or other Welsh explorers in America.

Mount Carmel, Illinois, May 30, 1842.

Mr. J. S. Williams,

Dear Sir — Your letter of the 17th, to major Armstrong, was placed in my hands some days ago. The brief remarks and hints given you are correct. I have a vast quantity of western matter, collected in notes gathered from various sources, mostly from persons who knew the facts. These notes reach back to remote periods. It is a fact that the Welsh, under Owen ap Zuinch, in the 12th century, found their way to the Mississippi, and as far up the Ohio as the falls of that river at Louisville, where they were cut off by the Indians; others ascended the Missouri, were either captured, or settled with and sunk into Indian habits.

Proof: In 1799, six soldiers' skeletons were dug up near Jeffersonville; each skeleton had a breast-plate of brass, cast, with the Welsh coat of arms, the mermaid and harp, with a Latin inscription, in substance "virtuous deeds meet their just reward."

One of these plates was left by captain Jonathan Taylor, with the late Mr. Hubbard Taylor, of Clarke county, Kentucky, and when called for by me, in 1814, for the late doctor John P. Campbell, of Chillicothe, Ohio, who was preparing notes of the antiquities of the West, by a letter from Hubbard Taylor, Jr., (a relation of mine,) now living, I was informed that the breast-plate had been taken to Virginia, by a gentleman of that state, I supposed as a matter of curiosity.

Proof 2d: The late William Mcintosh, who first settled near this, and had been for fifty or sixty years prior to his death, in 1831 or 2, a western Indian trader, was in fort Kaskaskia, prior to its being taken by general George Rogers Clarke, in 1778, and heard, as he informed me himself, a Welshman and an Indian from far up the Missouri, speaking and conversing in the Welsh language.

It was stated by Gilbert Imlay, in his History of the West, that it was captain Abraham Choplin, of Union county, Kentucky, that heard this conversation in Welsh. Doctor Campbell visited Choplin, and found it was not him; afterwards the fact was stated by Mcintosh, from whom I obtained other facts as to western matters.

Some hunter, many years ago, informed me of a tomb-stone being found in the southern part of Indiana, with initials of a name, and 1186 engraved on it

The Mohawk Indians had a tradition among them, respecting the Welsh, and of their having been cut off by the Indians, at the falls of the Ohio. The late colonel Joseph Hamilton Daviess, who had for many years sought for information on this subject, mentions this fact, and of the Welshmen's bones being found buried on Com Island; so that Southey, the king's laureat, had some foundation for his Welsh poem.

As to Logan, the Mingo Indian chief, the facts, as stated by me, were not only obtained from Mr. Jacob W. Davis, of Bartholomew county, Indiana, then residing (1831) near Columbus, but from various other sources, during the last thirty or forty years. I never like to rest any statement of mine on mere report. I sifted every statement to the bottom. 1 had become wearied with hearing contradictory statements; anecdotes related of Wayne's officers or soldiers, I have frequently heard applied to those of the last tear, by young men who knew no better. As to Mr. D., I know not whether he is living.

As to Tecumseh, or Tecumsekeh, the Shawnee chief, in 1821, in Ohio county, Kentucky, I fell in with the reverend Benjamin Kelly, a Baptist preacher, who was taken prisoner, with colonel Daniel Boone, while making salt, at the Blue-licks of Kentucky, in 1779 ; the Indians took them to a salt spring, six or eight miles south east of Chillicothe, (now Ross county,) and set them to work making salt from a secret spring, cut through a rock, and fitted in to hide it with a round flat stone.

The Indians having attacked a fort, in Greenbrier county, Virginia, were defeated; on coming to this spring, the salt makers joined them to go home, (at Oldtown, three miles from Xenia.) Boone, thinking that this defeated army intended attacking Boonsborough, on their way he deserted, somewhere near Washington, in Fayette county, and got to Boonsborough the second day! What a race! nobody can do it now. This fact corrects the history of Kentucky. Kelly was five years in Blackfish's family, with Lal-luze-stee-ka, the prophet, and Tekumtha, (as the Shakers in 1807 wrote their names,) sons of Blackfish.

I published Mr. Kelly's statement, in a Cincinnati paper, in 1824 or 5, and it went the rounds of the papers; also a story of Tecumseh, related to me by captain Thomas Bryan, who fell in with Blackfish and his family, in 1788, while surveying, on Ohio Brushcreek, and saved them (by killing two elks and a bear) from starvation. On this occasion, Blackfish put up a prayer and thanksgiving in his camp, which melted Bryan's men into tenderness and to tears!

Reverend Henry Frost got hold of Dr. John P. Campbell's manuscripts, "Western Antiquities," and published them in Philadelphia. General Samuel Finley arrested the sale of the work, for the doctor's widow. I had furnished Dr. Campbell with the most important facts, but Mr. Frost gave me no credit in his book. Doctor Camp bell died about 1816.

My notes are scattered through eight or ten or more volumes, and as I am about arranging them under the head of " Western Researches," at the request of my friends of the cities, when so arranged I can then draw off for you what may best suit your excellent work, "The Pioneer," which I think does great credit to the West.

But I regret that in this age of improvement, writers delight in hunting up hard dictionary phrases, to express their ideas. The standard of plain language is our president's messages. I knew an editor, somewhere in Ohio, who was thought to be a great man. He had a strange title for his paper, and his sheets of editorial matter were filled with new coined words. I was frequently asked their meaning, and could not tell; even a learned judge of your supreme court asked the meaning of the title to his paper, which I could not at that time explain; but afterwards I found in his office a dictionary of jaw-crackers, of new coined words, Greek, Latin, and phrases not used by English readers,— and the mystery was solved!

I never saw the book before, nor since. A popular work must come down to plain English, so that all may know what we mean. Believing this to be the course you are aiming at, permit me, my dear sir, to say, that I wish you a successful operation on say, that I wish you a successful operation on your plan. Yours, very respectfully, 

Thomas S. Hinde

Saturday, May 18, 2019

In Search of Madoc - 5


Fort Mountain, Georgia is an unusual place.  The mountain, and the famous stone “wall” near its summit, are protected by a state park that I visited a couple of years ago.  



The rugged section of Georgia east of Chatsworth has a spooky feeling to it.  At least it did the afternoon I was there. 

To be honest, the 900-foot-long wall did not quite live up to my expectations.  After reading so many myths and legends about the place I had concocted a mental image of something that did not exist.  Instead of a formidable wall of hewn stone, what I found was a meandering line of boulders.  

Sometimes it helps not to know too much before reaching a destination. 

Here are the transcriptions of two plaques at the park:

The Moon-Eyed People

While some legends equate the moon-eyed people with the descendants of Prince Madoc, Cherokee legends tell of the moon-eyed people that inhabited the Southern Highlands before they arrived. These people are said to have been unable to see during certain phases of the moon. During one of these phases, the Creek people annihilated the race. Some believe these moon-eyed people built the fortifications on this mountain.

Other versions of the Cherokee legend tell about people with fair skin, blond hair, and blue eyes that occupied the mountain areas until Cherokee invaders finally dispersed them. Some tales said the moon-eyed people could see in the dark, but were nearly blind in daylight. Other legends describe them as albinos.

Delaware Indian legend tells of their migration eastward from the far west and meeting a race of very tall, robust, light-skinned people they called the Allegewi, until they prevailed with the support of the Iroquois, who were also moving eastward. Some surviving Allegewi went to Cherokee territory and stayed with them for a time and are remembered as Tlvni Kula, "moon eyed" people, who were tall, fair-skinned, with light hair and grey eyes, and carried strange weapons and tools.

Prince Madoc of Wales

Welsh and Cherokee legends coincide here on Fort Mountain. Welsh legends tell of Prince Madoc, who sailed first to Mobile Bay in 1170 AD. After a brief exploration, Madoc returned to Wales, only to sail again for the New World with numerous settlers in a fleet of ships. They never returned to Wales. In the New World, they built stone forts, including this one on Fort Mountain, and warred with the local Cheyenne before deciding to move west sometime around 1186 AD. Madoc's travels, first told in print about 1584, had been told in Welsh songs and stories since the twelfth century.

In 1782, ninety-year-old Cherokee chief Oconostota told John Seiver of Tennessee about the Welsh who had once "¨.crossed the Great Water and landed first near the mouth of the Alabama River near Mobile¨." Oconostota told that these whites had built the fortifications in this country. Other American legends tell of encounters with indians who possessed pale eyes, red hair, beards, and spoke Welsh.

Legend attributes three stone forts to Prince Madoc's people. One near DeSoto Falls, Alabama, is said to be nearly identical to the setting, layout, and method of construction of Dolwyddelen Castle, the birthplace of Madoc. From Alabama, Madoc moved to this site and hastily constructed these fortifications. Retreating from Fort Mountain, these Welsh settlers built minor fortifications in the Chattanooga area before moving to the Duck River near Manchester, Tennessee, and building the fortifications now known as the Old Stone Fort.

Erected 1968 by Georgia Department of State Parks.

[One report I read indicated the markers were taken down in 2015.  One can only guess the rationale employed by Professional Killjoys, if in fact the plaques are gone.]

An online brochure for the park contains this explanation:

Mystery of Fort Mountain 

High atop Fort Mountain are the rocky ruins of an ancient “stone wall” with prehistoric origin steeped in legend. Generations of archaeologists and historians have unsuccessfully sought to unravel the riddle of this wall, one of several stone assemblages scattered throughout the Southeast. More than 150 years after its discovery, answers still evade us as to who built the wall, when and for what purpose. 

Theories abound, and one of the more realistic explanations is that the wall was built around 500 A.D. by a tribe of Native Americans for ceremonial or religious purposes. Others assert the wall was built by wandering bands of Welsh explorers during the 14th century as fortification against Indians. Welsh Prince Madoc has been credited with building several stone petroglyphs in the Southeast after supposedly sailing into Alabama.

Another theory, based on Cherokee legend, is that the wall was built by the “Moon Eyes,” a race of light-skinned people who could see in the dark because of their larger or paler eyes. Or perhaps Spanish conquistadors, possibly Hernando de Soto, built the wall as a defense against Indian attacks. Since no artifacts have been found to support these theories, no one knows who built the “wall of stones” zigzagging across the southern face of the Cohutta mountain range’s most prominent peak. 

This part of the southern Appalachian Mountains rises above the Piedmont Plain and offers 80-mile views, making it an ideal location for ceremonial practices or defensive needs. The stone wall runs east and west for 855 feet, and its height varies from two to six feet. Archaeologists believe it was much higher before exploration and plunder by previous scientists and treasure hunters. Adding to the mystery are 30 “pits” built into the wall. Were these gun emplacements or symbolic to some ceremonial practice of earlier inhabitants? Will the secrets contained within these stones forever remain a mystery?

Monday, May 13, 2019

The Death Song of the Cherokee Indian

Romantic poet and lyricist Anne Hunter (1742-1821) was the daughter of the military surgeon Robert Home. She married the famous London surgeon John Hunter and they had four children, two of whom died in infancy. Their home was a center of literary and intellectual life, and they often hosted gatherings for leading public figures, including members of the Bluestockings group.





Her lyric, The Death Song of the Cherokee Indian, was published in a 1784 songbook.  Hunter explained:

"The idea of this ballad was suggested several years ago by hearing a gentleman, who had resided several years in America amongst the tribe or nation called the Cherokees, sing a wild air, which he assured me it was customary for those people to chaunt with a barbarous jargon, implying contempt for their enemies in the moments of torture or death.  I have endeavoured to give something of the characteristic spirit and sentiment of those brave savages. We look upon the fierce and stubborn courage of the dying indian with a mixture of respect, pity, and horror; and it is to those sensations excited in the mind of the reader, that the Death Song must owe its effect." 

 Tune: MORALITY, The Sacred Harp, page 136.

 The sun sets at night and the stars shun the day,
 But glory remains when the light fades away.
 Begin, ye tormentors, your threats are in vain,
 For the son of Alknomook shall never complain.

 Remember the arrows he shot from his bow;
 Remember your chiefs by his hatchet laid low;
 Why so slow? do you wait till I shrink from my pain?
 No! the son of Alknomook shall never complain.

 Remember the wood where in ambush we lay,
 And the scalps which we bore from your nation away;
 Now the flame rises fast, you exult in my pain,
 But the son of Alknomook shall never complain.

 I'll go to the land where my father is gone;
 His ghost shall rejoice in the fame of his son;
 Death comes like a friend to relieve me from pain;
 And thy son, O Alknomook, has scorn'd to complain.


Friday, May 10, 2019

In Search of Madoc - 4


In 1872, The American Historical Record reprinted an article that first appeared in Gentleman’s Magazine in March 1740, containing an account of Rev. Morgan Jones’ fortuitous encounter with English-speaking Doeg Indians in 1660.


The following paper is copied from the "Gentleman's Magazine" for March, 1740 and added explanatory footnotes:

ENGLAND'S TITLE TO AMERICA.

That the vast Continent of America was first discovered by Britons above three hundred years before the Spaniards had any footing there; and that the descendants of that first colony of Britons who then seated themselves there, are still a distinct people, and retain their original language, is a matter of fact, which may be indisputably proved by the concurrent account of several writers and travellers. I shall first quote a letter of Mr. Morgan Jones, Chaplain to the Plantations of South Carolina, sent to Dr. Thomas Lloyd of Pennsylvania,1  by whom it was transmitted to Charles Lloyd of Dol-y-fran in Montgomeryshire, Esq. and afterwards communicated to Dr. Robert Plot,2 by the hands of Mr. Edward Lloyd, M. M. keeper of the Ashmolaan Museum in Oxford. It is as follows:

"These presents may certify all persons whatsoever, that in the Year 1660,1 being an Inhabitant in Virginia, and Chaplain to Major General Bennet of Nanseman [Namemond] County, the said Major Bennet and Sir William Berkeley3 sent two ships to Port Royal, now called South Carolina, which is sixty leagues to the Southward of Cape Fair, | Fear] and I was sent therewith to be their Minister. Upon the eighth of April we set out from Virginia, and arriv'd at the harbour's mouth of Port Royal4 the nineteenth of the same month, where we waited for the rest of the fleet that was to sail from Barbadoes and Bermuda with one M. West,5 who was to be Deputy Governor of the said place. As soon as the Fleet came in, the small Vessels that were with us, sailed up the River to a Place called the Oyster Point.

There I continued about eight months; all of which time being almost starved for want of provisions, I and five more travell'd thro' the wilderness, till we came to the Tuscarora Country.6 There the Tuscarora Indians7 took us prisoners because we told them we were bound for Roanoake. That night they carried us into their town and shut us up close by ourselves, to our no small dread. The next day they entered into a consultation about us; which after it was over, their interpreter told us, that we must prepare ourselves to die the next morning. 

Whereupon being very much dejected, and speaking to this effect in the British tongue, "Have I escaped so many dangers, and must I now be knocked on the head like a dog?" Then presently an Indian came to me, which afterwards appeared to be a war captain belonging to the Sachem of the Doegs (whose original I find must needs be from the Old Britons) and took me up by the middle and told me in the British tongue, I should not die: and thereupon went to the Emperor of Tuscarora, and agreed for my ransom and the men that were with me. 

They then welcomed us to their town, and entertained us very civilly and cordially four months; during which time, I had the opportunity of conversing with them familiarly in the British language; and did preach to them three times a week in the same Language; and they would usually confer with me about anything that was difficult therein; and at our departure they abundantly supply'd us with whatsoever was necessary to our support and well-being. Pontigo River, not far from Cape Atros. This is a brief recital of my travels among the Doeg Indians.

"Morgan Jones the son of John Jones, of Basaly, near New Port, in the County of Monmouth. "New York, March, 1685-6. "P. S. I am ready to conduct any Welshman or others to the Country."
I shall next make some remarks on the above letter.It appears by this narrative, that the author, Mr. Morgan Jones, was probably unacquainted with the history of his own country. He was surpriz'd (and well he might) to hear the Doeg Indians talk the British language; and concludes (and indeed very justly) that they must be descended from the Old Britons;' but when and how, our author seems to be at a loss. But the Welsh history (first wrote by Caradoc, Abbot of Llancarvan, and since published by Dr. Powell) sets the whole matter in a clear light, and unravels the mystery.8 For it informs us, that in the year 1170, Madoc of Owen Gwynneth (to avoid the calamities and distractions of a civil war at home) took a resolution to go in quest of some remote country to live in peace,9 and so having directed his course due west he landed in some place of that vast continent of America. 

There being charmed with the fertility of the soil (after having built some slight fortifications for the security of his people) he returns home to North Wales, leaving one hundred and twenty men behind. There reciting his successful Voyage, and describing the fruitful" and pleasant land he found out, he prevailed with many of his countrymen, both men and women, to return with him to enjoy that tranquility in a remote country, which they could not in their own.

The brave adventurers put out to sea in ten barges, laden with all manner of necessaries, and by God's providence landed safely in the same harbour they arrived at before. It is very probable it was about Mexico,10 since there Prince Madoc was bury'd, as his Epitaph since found there, does make evident beyond all contradiction.  Madoc wyf mwydic ei wedd Fawn geuan Owen Gwynedd; Ny fynnwn dir fy awydd oedd Na aa mawr endy Moroedd  11

It is indeed the common opinion, that in the course of a few generations, Madoc and his men incorporated with the natives and made one people with them; whence proceed the various British words that the Europeans found among the Mexico Indians such as Fengwyn, Groeso, Gwenddwr, Bara, Tad, Mam, Buwch, Cligiar, Llwynoc, Coch-y-dwr, with many more recited in Sir Thomas Herbert's Travels, p. 222.

But by this narrative it is evident, that they keep as yet a distinct people, at least in the year 1660, when our author was amongst them. For Mr. Jones says, he not only conversed with them about the ordinary affairs of life, but preached to them three times a week in the British tongue; and that they usually consulted him when any thing appeared difficult in the same Language, which evidently demonstrates, that they still preserve their original language, and are still a colony or people unmixed.

Now if a premier discovery confers a right (as it seems it is a maxim in politics) then the Crown of England has an indisputable right to the sovereignty of those countrys in America; for the Spaniards had no footing there 'till the year 1492, 322 years since the first discovery by Prince Madoc. Some Statesmen indeed would fain have persuaded Q. Elizabeth to insist on this title (as is mentioned by Dr. Heylin, p. 190, Ed. 3, of his Geography.) But they had only an obscure tradition then, that was thought that would not bear proof. But this narrative sets off the whole matter beyond dispute; wherein our author writes with such simplicity and unaffected style, and without any studied 
Eloquence as 'tis plain he had nothing in view but to state the naked truth. And since this is a matter of fact, so well attested, backed with such a variety of incidents, let not the proud Dons any more assume the glory of this noble discovery; but let our most puissant Monarch of Great Britain claim his most just rights.
Britons strike home.

Theophilus Evans, Vicar of St. David's in Brecon.



1 Thomas Lloyd came to America with William Penn and was deputy-governor of that Province after the Proprietor returned to England. He was a native of Dol-y-fran, Montgomeryshire, Wales, where he was born in 1649. He was a minister among the Friends or Quakers. He suffered persecution because of that ministry, and was much reviled by the "miserable apostate," George Keith —[editor.]

2 Robert Plot was an English naturalist and antiquary, and flourished during the last half of the seventeenth century. He became Professor of Chemistry at Oxford, in 1684, and historiographer-royal, in 1688. He published histories of Oxfordshire and Staffordshire, and died in 1696.—[editor.]

3 Sir William Berkeley was governor of Virginia from 1641 to 1677. He was unpopular with the planters who were imbued with republicanism, and had to contend with civil war fur a time, brought about by what is known as Bacon's Rebellion.—[editor. ]

4 There, upon Beaufort Island, in Port Royal Sound, some Huguenots or French Protestants chose a spot for their home, built a fort, and named it Carolina, in honor of their king. That was in the year 1562. The settlement was not permanent. Another settlement there, was attempted by the English in 1670. but the plan was abandoned.—[editor. J

5 Joseph West was an associate of William Sayle in leading emigrants in three ships to make a settlement at Beaufort. There Sayle died in 1671, when the spot was abandoned, and the settlers went to Oyster Point, at the junction of Ashley and Cooper Rivers, where the city of Charleston now stands. —[editor.]

6 The Tuscaroras inhabiting the region of the Cape Fear River.in North Carolina, were related, in language, to the Five Nations in New York. They were broken up by the European settlers in North Carolina, in 1712, and going Northward joined their kindred in New York, in 1714, when the Confederacy became known as the Six Nations.-[editor. J

7 The Tuscaroras were a lighter color than the rest of the Indians, and were sometimes mentioned as “White Indians." A hundred years or more ago there were remains of Welsh words heard among some of our Indians; and the Mandrans in the far West, are so light colored that they are supposed to have inherited some of the blood of Madoc and his men. —[editor. ]

8 In the abbeys of Conway and Strat Flur, are old Welsh annals which were used by Humphrey I.lwoyd (Lloydt in his translation and continuation of Caradoe’s "History of Wales." That continuation extends from the year A. D. 1157 to 1270.—[editor. I

9 In the preserved works of several Welsh bards who sang before the time of Columbus, this emigration of Prince Madoc is mentioned. Hakluyt had an account of it from the bard Guttun Owen, who mentioned the fact that Northmen had found a continent to the westward. As they had visited America more than one hundred and fifty years before Madoc's emigration, he was doubtless well acquainted with the fact that such a continent existed.—[editor.]

10  The general impression has been that Madoc landed on the coast of the Carolinas if anywhere in America. The whole story is sometimes regarded as a myth, but if the account given by Mr. Jones be true (and his veracity has never been impeached, nor has it been verified), it certainty gives an air at truth to the narrative. It was in North Carolina that Jones found the British speaking Indians, and preached intelligently to them. He makes no mention, however, of any information which he obtained from them respecting the origin of that language among them. He gave other accounts of his travels among them, but only the letter above quoted has been preserved. – [editor.]

11 In the "Gentleman's Magazine" for April 1749. appeared the following: "Since our last, we have found the following translation of the British Epitaph iSee page 105) on Pnnce Madoc. It is printed in Herbert's Travels, who saw the monument:
"Madoc Ap Owen was I called, Strong, tall and comely, not enthralled with homebred pleasure, but for fame Through land and sea I sought the same."
Sir Thomas Herbert above mentioned did not travel in America but in the East, and his work published on his return in 1634, gives an account of his “Travels in Africa and the Greater Asia,” and he could not have seen the monument if it was in Mexico, as the vicar of St. David's observes.
Some scholar in the " Gloucester (England) Journal thus translated it,  at the same time:
"Madoc my name, oft soaked in billows dire, Owen, the Prince of North Wales was my sire, My sole ambition was to scour the main Despising native honors, wealth and fame."
Another translation was given by one who is described as "a young lady, who is excellently accomplished in all the amiable Beauties of mind, person and conversation—the Graces, the Muses, and the Virtues are her own"—as follows:
"Here lies the mighty Owen's Heir
In glorious deeds as well as birth:
I scom'd of Lands the menial care
And sought through seas a foreign Earth."
Our classical readers may be gratified by a perusal of a Latin translation of the Epitaph which appeared in the Gentleman s Magazine, Volume x, page 519.
That the Welsh Prince Madoc, son of Owen King of Wales, went with a colony from that country to America, and left there traces of his language, seems probable. All accounts of him afterwards are doubtless fables and conjectures.— [editor.]

Sunday, May 5, 2019

Stop Me If You've Heard This Before...

Alarmists are nothing new, per this 1989 article:


Archive - Associated Press

U.N. Predicts Disaster if Global Warming Not Checked

PETER JAMES SPIELMANN

June 29, 1989

UNITED NATIONS (AP) _ A senior U.N. environmental official says entire nations could be wiped off the face of the Earth by rising sea levels if the global warming trend is not reversed by the year 2000.



Coastal flooding and crop failures would create an exodus of ″eco- refugees,′ ′ threatening political chaos, said Noel Brown, director of the New York office of the U.N. Environment Program, or UNEP.

He said governments have a 10-year window of opportunity to solve the greenhouse effect before it goes beyond human control.

As the warming melts polar icecaps, ocean levels will rise by up to three feet, enough to cover the Maldives and other flat island nations, Brown told The Associated Press in an interview on Wednesday.

Coastal regions will be inundated; one-sixth of Bangladesh could be flooded, displacing a fourth of its 90 million people. A fifth of Egypt’s arable land in the Nile Delta would be flooded, cutting off its food supply, according to a joint UNEP and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency study.

″Ecological refugees will become a major concern, and what’s worse is you may find that people can move to drier ground, but the soils and the natural resources may not support life. Africa doesn’t have to worry about land, but would you want to live in the Sahara?″ he said.

UNEP estimates it would cost the United States at least $100 billion to protect its east coast alone.
Shifting climate patterns would bring back 1930s Dust Bowl conditions to Canadian and U.S. wheatlands, while the Soviet Union could reap bumper crops if it adapts its agriculture in time, according to a study by UNEP and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

Excess carbon dioxide is pouring into the atmosphere because of humanity’s use of fossil fuels and burning of rain forests, the study says. The atmosphere is retaining more heat than it radiates, much like a greenhouse.

The most conservative scientific estimate that the Earth’s temperature will rise 1 to 7 degrees in the next 30 years, said Brown.

The difference may seem slight, he said, but the planet is only 9 degrees warmer now than during the 8,000-year Ice Age that ended 10,000 years ago.

Brown said if the warming trend continues, ″the question is will we be able to reverse the process in time? We say that within the next 10 years, given the present loads that the atmosphere has to bear, we have an opportunity to start the stabilizing process.″

He said even the most conservative scientists ″already tell us there’s nothing we can do now to stop a ... change″ of about 3 degrees.

″Anything beyond that, and we have to start thinking about the significant rise of the sea levels ... we can expect more ferocious storms, hurricanes, wind shear, dust erosion.″
He said there is time to act, but there is no time to waste.

UNEP is working toward forming a scientific plan of action by the end of 1990, and the adoption of a global climate treaty by 1992. In May, delegates from 103 nations met in Nairobi, Kenya - where UNEP is based - and decided to open negotiations on the treaty next year.

Nations will be asked to reduce the use of fossil fuels, cut the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases such as methane and fluorocarbons, and preserve the rain forests.

″We have no clear idea about the ecological minimum of green space that the planet needs to function effectively. What we do know is that we are destroying the tropical rain forest at the rate of 50 acres a minute, about one football field per second,″ said Brown.

Each acre of rain forest can store 100 tons of carbon dioxide and reprocess it into oxygen.

Brown suggested that compensating Brazil, Indonesia and Kenya for preserving rain forests may be necessary.

The European Community is talking about a half-cent levy on each kilowatt- hour of fossil fuels to raise $55 million a year to protect the rain forests, and other direct subsidies may be possible, he said.

The treaty could also call for improved energy efficiency, increasing conservation, and for developed nations to transfer technology to Third World nations to help them save energy and cut greenhouse gas emissions, said Brown.

[2019 fact check - "According to an ongoing temperature analysis conducted by scientists at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), the average global temperature on Earth has increased by about 0.8° Celsius (1.4° Fahrenheit) since 1880."]

Monday, April 29, 2019

In Search of Madoc - 3

Narrative of the adventures of Captain Isaac Stewart [from South Carolina], taken from his own mouth in March 1782.


I was taken prisoner about fifty miles to the westward of Fort Pitt [present-day Pittsburgh], about eighteen years ago, by the Indians, and was carried by them to the Wabash, with many more white men, who were executed with circumstances of horrid barbarity; it was my good fortune to call forth the sympathy of Rose, called the good woman of the town, who was permitted to redeem me from the flames, by giving, as my ransom, a horse.

Fort Pitt Under Siege, by Robert Griffing

After remaining two years in bondage amongst the Indians, a Spaniard came to the nation, having been sent from Mexico on discoveries. He made application to the chiefs for redeeming me and another white man in the like situation, a native of Wales, named John Davey; which they complied with, and we took our departure in company with the Spaniard, and travelled to the westward, crossing the Mississippi near la Riviere Rouge, or Red River, up which we travelled seven hundred miles, when we came to a nation of Indians remarkably white, and whose hair was of a reddish colour, at least mostly so; they lived on the bank of a small river that empties itself into the Red River, which is called the River Post.  

In the morning of the day after our arrival amongst these Indians, the Welchman informed me, that he was determined to remain with them, giving as a reason that he understood their language, it being very little different from the Welch. My curiosity was excited very much by this information, and I went with my companion to the chief men of the town, who informed him (in a language I had no knowledge of, and which had no afiinity to that of any other Indian tongue I ever heard) that their forefathers of this nation came from a foreign country, and landed on the east side of the Mississippi, describing particularly the country now called West Florida, and that on the Spaniards taking possession of Mexico, they fled to their then abode; and as a proof of the truth of what he advanced, he brought forth rolls of parchment, which were carefully tied up in otter skins, on which were large characters, written with blue ink; the characters I did not understand, and the Welchman being unacquainted with letters, even of his own language, I was not able to know the meaning of the writing. 

They are a bold, hardy, intrepid people, very warlike, and the women beautiful, when compared with other Indians.  We left this nation, after being kindly treated and requested to remain among them, being only two in number, the Spaniard and myself, and we continued our course up the waters of the Red River, till we came to-a nation of Indians, called Windots, that never had seen a white man before, and who were unacquainted with the use of fire-arms. On our way, we came to a transparent stream, which, to our great surprise, we found to descend into the earth, and, at the foot of a ridge of mountains, disappeared; it was remarkably clear, and, near to it, we found the bones of two animals, of such a size that a man might walk under the ribs, and the teeth were very heavy.

The nation of Indians who had never seen a white man. lived near the source of the Red River, and there the Spaniard discovered, to his great joy, gold dust in the brooks and rivulets; and being informed by the Indians, that a nation lived farther west, who were very rich, and whose arrows were pointed with gold, we set out in the hope of reaching their country, and travelled about five hundred miles, till we came to a ridge of mountains, which we crossed, and from which the streams run due west, and at the foot of the mountains, the Spaniard gave proofs of joy and great satisfaction, having found gold in great abundance. I was not acquainted with the nature of the ore, but I lifted up what he called gold dust from the bottom of the little rivulets issuing from the cavities of the rocks, and it had a yellow cast, and was remarkably heavy; but so much was the Spaniard satisfied, he relinquished his plan of prosecuting his journey, being perfectly convinced that he had found a country full of gold.

On our return he took a different route, and, when we reached the Mississippi, we went in a canoe to the mouth of the Missouri, where we found a Spanish post; there I was discharged by the Spaniard, went to the country of the Chickesaws, from thence to the Cherokees, and soon reached Ninety-six, in South Carolina.


Stewart's account first appeared in The American museum, or Universal magazine : containing essays on agriculture, commerce, manufactures, politics, morals and manners: sketches of national characters, natural and civil history, and biography: law information, public papers, intelligence: moral tales, ancient and modern poetry, 1787.

Saturday, April 27, 2019

In Search of Madoc - 2


In 1810, Tennessee's first governor, John Sevier, replied to a researcher seeking information on the history of the backcountry.  

John Sevier (1745 - 1815)

Though he did not mention Madoc by name, Sevier did recollect stories of “Welsh Indians” including a tribe on the Missouri River, often referred to as “Mandans.”

Knoxville, 9 October, 1810
Sir:

Your letter of Aug.30 th. is before me. With respect to the information you have requested, I shall with pleasure give you so far as my own memory will now serve me; and also aided by a memorandum taken on the subject, of a nation of people called the Welsh Indians. In the year 1782 I was on a campaign against some part of the Cherokees; during the route I had discovered trace of very ancient tho' regular fortifications. Some short time after the expedition I had an occasion to enter into a negotiation with the Cherokee Chiefs for the purpose of exchanging prisoners. After the exchange had been settled, I took an opportunity of enquiring of a venerable old chief called Oconostota, who then and had been for nearly sixty years the ruling chief of the Cherokee Nation, if he could inform me what people it had been which had left such signs of Fortifications in their Country and in Pre-Columbian Explorer Sites in the Southeast particular the one on the bank of Highwassee River. 

The old chief immediately informed me: "It was handed down by the Forefathers that the works had been made by the white people who had formerly inhabited the Country, and at the same time the Cherokees resided low down in the country now called South Carolina; that a war had existed between the two nations for several years. At length it was discovered that the whites were making a number of large Boats which induced the Cherokees to suppose they were about to Descend the Tennessee River. 

They then assembled their whole band of warriors and took the shortest and most convenient route to the Muscle Shoals in order to intercept them on their passage down the river. In a few days the Boats hove in sight. A warm combat ensued with various success for several days. At length the whites proposed to the Indians that they would exchange prisoners and cease hostilities, they would leave the Country and never more return, which was acceded to; and after the exchange parted friendly. That the whites then descended the Tennessee down to the Ohio, thence down to the big river (the Mississippi) then they ascended it up to the Muddy River (the Missouri) and thence up that river for a great distance. That they were then on some of its branches, but, says he, they are no more a white people; they are now all become Indians, and look like the other red people of the Country."

I then asked him if he had ever heard any of his ancestors saying what nation of people these whites belonged to. He answered: "He had heard his Grandfather and Father say they were a people called Welsh; that they had crossed the Great Water and landed first near the mouth of the Alabama River near Mobile and had been drove up to the heads of the waters until they had arrived at Highwassee River by the Mexican Indians who had been drove out of their own Country by the Spaniards."

Many years ago I happened in company with a French-man, who had lived with the Cherokees and said he had formerly been high up the Missouri. He informed me he had traded with the Welsh tribe; that they certainly spoke much of the Welsh dialect, and tho' their customs was savage and wild yet many of them, particularly the females, were very fair and white, and frequently told him that they had sprung from a white nation of people. He also stated that some small scraps of old books remained among them, but in such tattered and destructive order that nothing intelligent remained in the pieces or scraps left. He observed, their settlement was in an obscure quarter on a branch of the Missouri running through a bed of lofty mountains. His name has escaped my memory.

The chief Oconostota informed me: "An old woman in his nation called Peg had some part of an old book given her by an Indian who had lived high up the Missouri, and thought it was one of the Welsh tribe." Before I had an opportunity of seeing it, her house and all the contents burnt. I have seen persons who had seen parts of a very old and disfigured book with this old Indian woman, but neither of them could make any discovery of what language it was printed in (neither of them understood languages, but a small smattering of English).

I have thus, Sir, communicated and detailed the particulars of your request, so far as I have any information on the subject, and wish it were more comprehensive than you will find it written.

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

In Search of Madoc - 1


The “experts” assure us that the Welsh prince Madoc did NOT come to America in 1170, that he was NOT responsible for a number of inexplicable stone structures across the continent, and that his followers were NOT the fathers of a tribe of Welsh-speaking Indians.  



Nevertheless, the testimonies of many people over many centuries build a tantalizing case for the existence of Madoc.  Even if he did not sail to America, even if he did not exist, the persistence of the Madoc story is remarkable.  So many old accounts are available from so many scattered sources that I will compile some of them here.  For an introduction, here are some excerpts from the Wikipedia entry:

Madoc, also spelled Madog, was, according to folklore, a Welsh prince who sailed to America in 1170, over three hundred years before Christopher Columbus's voyage in 1492.  According to the story, he was a son of Owain Gwynedd, and took to the sea to flee internecine violence at home. The "Madoc story" legend evidently evolved out of a medieval tradition about a Welsh hero's sea voyage, to which only allusions survive. However, it attained its greatest prominence during the Elizabethan era, when English and Welsh writers wrote of the claim that Madoc had come to the Americas as an assertion of prior discovery, and hence legal possession, of North America by the Kingdom of England.

The "Madoc story" remained popular in later centuries, and a later development asserted that Madoc's voyagers had intermarried with local Native Americans, and that their Welsh-speaking descendants still live somewhere in the United States. These "Welsh Indians" were credited with the construction of a number of landmarks throughout the Midwestern United States, and a number of white travelers were inspired to go look for them. The "Madoc story" has been the subject of much speculation in the context of possible pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. No conclusive archaeological proof of such a man or his voyages has been found in the New or Old World; however, speculation abounds connecting him with certain sites, such as Devil's Backbone, located on the Ohio River at Fourteen Mile Creek near Louisville, Kentucky.

Madoc's purported father, Owain Gwynedd, was a real king of Gwynedd during the 12th century and is widely considered one of the greatest Welsh rulers of the Middle Ages….

The 1584 Historie of Cambria by David Powel says that Madoc was disheartened by this family fighting, and that he set sail from Llandrillo (Rhos-on-Sea) to explore the western ocean with a number of ships. They discovered a distant and abundant land in 1170 where about one hundred men, women and children disembarked to form a colony….

Madoc's colonists travelled up the vast river systems of North America, raising structures and encountering friendly and unfriendly tribes of Native Americans before finally settling down somewhere in the Midwest or the Great Plains. They are reported to be the founders of various civilisations such as the Aztec, the Maya and the Inca.

On 26 November 1608, Peter Wynne, a member of Captain Christopher Newport's exploration party to the villages of the Monacan people, Virginia Siouan speakers above the falls of the James River in Virginia, wrote a letter to John Egerton, informing him that some members of Newport's party believed the pronunciation of the Monacans' language resembled "Welch."…

Another early settler to claim an encounter with a Welsh-speaking Indian was the Reverend Morgan Jones, who told Thomas Lloyd, William Penn's deputy, that he had been captured in 1669 in North Carolina by a tribe of Tuscarora people called the Doeg. According to Jones, the chief spared his life when he heard Jones speak Welsh, a tongue he understood. Jones' report says that he then lived with the Doeg for several months preaching the Gospel in Welsh and then returned to the British Colonies where he recorded his adventure in 1686….

In 1810, John Sevier, the first governor of Tennessee, wrote to his friend Major Amos Stoddard about a conversation he had in 1782 with the old Cherokee chief Oconostota concerning ancient fortifications built along the Alabama River. The chief allegedly told him that the forts were built by a white people called "Welsh", as protection against the ancestors of the Cherokee, who eventually drove them from the region.  Sevier had also written in 1799 of the alleged discovery of six skeletons in brass armour bearing the Welsh coat-of-arms. He claims that Madoc and the Welsh were first in Alabama.

In 1824, Thomas S. Hinde wrote a letter to John S. Williams, editor of The American Pioneer, regarding the Madoc Tradition. In the letter, Hinde claimed to have gathered testimony from numerous sources that stated Welsh people under Owen Ap Zuinch had come to America in the twelfth century, over three hundred years before Christopher Columbus. Hinde claimed that in 1799, six soldiers had been dug up near Jeffersonville, Indiana, on the Ohio River with breastplates that contained Welsh coats-of-arms….

The historian Stephen E. Ambrose writes in his history book Undaunted Courage that Thomas Jefferson believed the "Madoc story" to be true and instructed the Lewis and Clark Expedition to find the descendants of the Madoc Welsh Indians.

Monday, April 22, 2019

Happy Earth Day!



7 ENVIRO PREDICTIONS FROM EARTH DAY 1970 THAT WERE JUST DEAD WRONG
The Daily Caller, 04/22/2016 | ENERGY
Andrew Follett | Energy and Science Reporter

So this Earth Day, The Daily Caller News Foundation takes a look at predictions made by environmentalists around the original Earth Day in 1970 to see how they’ve held up.

Have any of these dire predictions come true? No, but that hasn’t stopped environmentalists from worrying.

From predicting the end of civilization to classic worries about peak oil, here are seven environmentalist predictions that were just flat out wrong.

1: “Civilization Will End Within 15 Or 30 Years”
Harvard biologist Dr. George Wald warned shortly before the first Earth Day in 1970 that civilization would soon end “unless immediate action is taken against problems facing mankind.” Three years before his projection, Wald was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

Wald was a vocal opponent of the Vietnam War and the nuclear arms race. He even flew to Moscow at one point to advise the leader of the Soviet Union on environmental policy.  Despite his assistance to a communist government, civilization still exists. The percentage of Americans who are concerned about environmental threats has fallen as civilization failed to end by environmental catastrophe.

2: “100-200 Million People Per Year Will Be Starving To Death During The Next Ten Years”
Stanford professor Dr. Paul Ehrlich declared in April 1970 that mass starvation was imminent. His dire predictions failed to materialize as the number of people living in poverty has significantly declined and the amount of food per person has steadily increased, despite population growth. The world’s Gross Domestic Product per person has immeasurably grown despite increases in population.

Ehrlich is largely responsible for this view, having co-published “The Population Bomb” with The Sierra Club in 1968. The book made a number of claims including that millions of humans would starve to death in the 1970s and 1980s, mass famines would sweep England leading to the country’s demise, and that ecological destruction would devastate the planet causing the collapse of civilization.

3: “Population Will Inevitably And Completely Outstrip Whatever Small Increases In Food Supplies We Make”
Paul Ehrlich also made the above claim in 1970, shortly before an agricultural revolution that caused the world’s food supply to rapidly increase.

Ehrlich has consistently failed to revise his predictions when confronted with the fact that they did not occur, stating in 2009 that “perhaps the most serious flaw in The Bomb was that it was much too optimistic about the future.”

4: “Demographers Agree Almost Unanimously … Thirty Years From Now, The Entire World … Will Be In Famine”
Environmentalists in 1970 truly believed in a scientific consensus predicting global famine due to population growth in the developing world, especially in India.

“Demographers agree almost unanimously on the following grim timetable: by 1975 widespread famines will begin in India; these will spread by 1990 to include all of India, Pakistan, China and the Near East, Africa. By the year 2000, or conceivably sooner, South and Central America will exist under famine conditions,” Peter Gunter, a professor at North Texas State University, said in a 1970 issue of The Living Wilderness.”By the year 2000, thirty years from now, the entire world, with the exception of Western Europe, North America, and Australia, will be in famine.”

India, where the famines were supposed to begin, recently became one of the world’s largest exporters of agricultural products and food supply per person in the country has drastically increased in recent years. In fact, the number of people in every country listed by Gunter has risen dramatically since 1970.

5: “In A Decade, Urban Dwellers Will Have To Wear Gas Masks To Survive Air Pollution”
Life magazine stated in January 1970 that scientist had “solid experimental and theoretical evidence” to believe that “in a decade, urban dwellers will have to wear gas masks to survive air pollution…by 1985 air pollution will have reduced the amount of sunlight reaching Earth by one half.”

Despite the prediction, air quality has been improving worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. Air pollution has also sharply declined in industrialized countries. Carbon dioxide (CO2), the gas environmentalists are worried about today, is odorless, invisible and harmless to humans in normal amounts.

6: “Childbearing [Will Be] A Punishable Crime Against Society, Unless The Parents Hold A Government License”
David Brower, the first executive director of The Sierra Club made the above claim and went on to say that “[a]ll potential parents [should be] required to use contraceptive chemicals, the government issuing antidotes to citizens chosen for childbearing.” Brower was also essential in founding Friends of the Earth and the League Of Conservation Voters and much of the modern environmental movement.

Brower believed that most environmental problems were ultimately attributable to new technology that allowed humans to pass natural limits on population size. He famously stated before his death in 2000 that “all technology should be assumed guilty until proven innocent” and repeatedly advocated for mandatory birth control.

Today, the only major government to ever get close to his vision has been China, which ended its one-child policy last October.

7: “By The Year 2000 … There Won’t Be Any More Crude Oil”
On Earth Day in 1970 ecologist Kenneth Watt famously predicted that the world would run out of oil saying, “You’ll drive up to the pump and say, ‘Fill ‘er up, buddy,’ and he’ll say, ‘I am very sorry, there isn’t any.’”

Numerous academics like Watt predicted that American oil production peaked in 1970 and would gradually decline, likely causing a global economic meltdown. However, the successful application of massive hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, caused American oil production to come roaring back and there is currently too much oil on the market.

American oil and natural gas reserves are at their highest levels since 1972 and American oil production in 2014 was 80 percent higher than in 2008 thanks to fracking.

Furthermore, the U.S. now controls the world’s largest untapped oil reserve, the Green River Formation in Colorado. This formation alone contains up to 3 trillion barrels of untapped oil shale, half of which may be recoverable. That’s five and a half times the proven reserves of Saudi Arabia. This single geologic formation could contain more oil than the rest of the world’s proven reserves combined.

Thursday, April 4, 2019

History Rewritten - 16


“Every record has been destroyed or falsified, every book rewritten, every picture has been repainted, every statue and street building has been renamed, every date has been altered. And the process is continuing day by day and minute by minute. History has stopped. Nothing exists except an endless present in which the Party is always right.”
-George Orwell, 1984



The Party which is always right has been working overtime in Franklin, North Carolina.

At issue is the deed to the Nikwasi Mound, a 1000 year-old earthwork owned by the town of Franklin since 1946.  Thanks to the town, Nikwasi might be the best-preserved mound in Western North Carolina, though that’s not saying much.

Several years ago, the municipal maintenance crew squirted a few ounces of Roundup on the mound. 

Accusations of “DESECRATION!” ensued.

Ever since, we’ve been told that Nikwasi is “sacred to the Cherokee” and that the town should surrender ownership of the mound.

You have to wonder what makes Nikwasi “more sacred” than other mounds in the region.  The last time I had the misfortune of visiting Kituwah Mound near Bryson City, then recently acquired by the Eastern Band, it was designated for the traditional arts of rabbit hunting and flying radio-controlled aircraft, as has been the case since time immemorial.  Apparently, Kituwah’s status on the “sacred scale” is not sufficient to warrant much care and respect by the Eastern Band.

The neglect and abuse of Kituwah pales, though, in comparison with the treatment of the Nununyi Mound in Cherokee proper.  (The politically correct cool kids signal their virtue by spelling that name “Nvnvnyi.”  Isn’t that special?)

I would urge you to visit Cherokee soon and ask for directions to Nununyi/Nvnvnyi. 

I would also urge you NOT to set foot on Nununyi/Nvnvnyi.  The overgrown thicket has never been tainted by Roundup, though it is festooned with an abundance of litter, discarded hypodermic needles, empty liquor bottles, used condoms, semi-comatose substance abusers and cold corpses.  OK.  I’m not sure about the last item on that list, but it seems likely.

Perhaps there is a reasonable explanation for why Nununyi/Nvnvnyi is not particularly “sacred to the Cherokee” but the self-annointed experts don’t seem to want to address that issue.

Are Kituwah and Nununyi the models for what is to become of Nikwasi, should the town of Franklin surrender its deed to the mound?

In prior posts I shared several stories about the history of Nikwasi.  https://gulahiyi.blogspot.com/search?q=nikwasi

We don’t know who built it, but they almost certainly preceded the Cherokees by several centuries.  Why don’t the builders of Nikwasi get a “seat at the table” during the deliberations over the mound’s future?  Don’t they deserve as much deference as the Johnny-come-lately Cherokees who were squatters (on something they didn’t build) for a relatively short span of time?

Supposedly, the Eastern band intends to operate a disinformation center adjacent to the mound, to convince gullible tourists that Cherokees were the only aboriginal people to occupy the Southern Appalachians, forever and always.

Bring up those non-Cherokees of the past and they’ll get shot down faster a Catawba casino or federal recognition for the Lumbees.

Ironically, Franklin would be an ideal place to shed light on the Cherokee past.  Not at the proposed disinformation center, but at the Scottish Tartans Museum just up the hill.  They could stage a great exhibit on the many famous “Cherokees” who were more Scottish than they were Cherokee. 

No, Elizabeth Warren was not the first to recognize that a white person could benefit from identifying oneself as a Cherokee.  “Chief” John Ross, Georgia plantation owner and slaveholder - and 7/8 Scottish – worked the same gambit long ago, as did many of his contemporaries.  But this is not the sort of thing you would learn at the Cherokee disinformation center next to the Nikwasi Mound.

Indeed, the cadre of “professional experts” advocating the deed transfer to the “Nikwasi Initiative” are promoting a very specific narrative, and you can be sure that anything contradicting that narrative will be swept under the rug.  Follow the money.  Western Carolina University is lurking in the background, and academic rigor concerning the actual history of native people in Western North Carolina will take a backseat to the college’s insistence on maintaining a healthy business relationship with the Eastern Band.  

Hence, be prepared to hear a lot about “indigenous archaeology” where facts are glossed over unless they support a very specific narrative – a politically correct 21st century version of the “Noble Savage” stereotype. According to the modern scholar, the Cherokees of old celebrated diversity, were sterling environmental stewards and advocated for gay rights.  And you think I am kidding.

It is not much of a stretch to suggest that the “Cherokee Tribe” originated in the late 17th century as a joint business enterprise between native entrepreneurs and colonial investors.  Like the international criminal syndicates plaguing the world today, it was built on the triumvirate of human trafficking, weapon sales and the distribution of intoxicating substances. 

Events in 1730, of which I have posted before, are a memorable part of the Nikwasi history.  This week, a local newspaper editor took a break from his customary editorial – the one patting himself on the back for being a Journalist Extraordinaire, one of the last valiant defenders of truth, justice and afflicting the comfortable.  Instead, he pontificated on the Nikwasi controversy.  Of course, he favors transfer of the deed from the yokels to the know-it-alls.  

He made a brief reference to the “1730 treaty” and speculated “Wonder to what degree and how many times that legal contract has been violated.”  (Journalist Extraordinaire, why not send out your crack team of young Lois Lanes and Jimmy Olsens to uncover the answer you want?)  His implication was that Ol’ Whitey had screwed the Cherokees – again and again.  Maybe, maybe not.  

In fact, there was plenty of mischief on both sides from 1730 onwards.  And the “treaty” was actually pretty vague for the most part.  The esteemed editor should take the time to read the agreement before popping off about its significance.  Presumably, any agreement with Great Britain would have been moot after the Revolution.

It might help to understand some context for this time period.  In 1663, King Charles II established the colony of Carolina by issuing a charter to eight members of the English aristocracy, who became known as the Lords Proprietors of Carolina.  This arrangement continued until 1729, when the crown purchased the interests of the successors of the original Lords Proprietors (Well, seven out of eight.  Lord Granville insisted on retaining his share in property, comprising the northern portion of what is now North Carolina.)  The Nikwasi incident was just one aspect of the crown taking a more hands-on approach to managing its holdings in the Carolinas.

The eccentric freelance ambassador Alexander Cuming met with Cherokees at Nikwasi on April 3, 1730.  Shortly thereafter he returned to England with a party of young braves.  During their four-month stay in the royal court they agreed to “Articles of Friendship and Commerce” with Great Britain.  By September 1730, this was the contemporary account of that agreement:

Articles of Friendship and Commerce propos'd by the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations to the Deputys of the Cherrokee Nation in South Carolina by H.M. Order.

Whereas you Scayagusta Oukah, Chief of the town of Tassetsa—you Scalilosken Ketagusta—you Jethtowe—you Clogoittah—you Colannah—you Oucounaco—have been deputed by Motoy of Tellike, with the consent and approbation of the whole nation of ye Cherrokee Indians at a General Meeting at Nikossen the 3d of April 1730, to attend Sr. Alexander Cuming Baronet to Great Britain where you have seen the great King George, at whose feet ye said Alexander Cumming by express authority for that purpose, from ye said Moytoy, and all the Cherrokee people, has laid the Crown of your nation, with ye scalps of yor. enemies and feathers of glory at H.M. feet, in token of obedience.

Now ye King of Great Britain, bearing love in his heart, to ye powerfull and great nation of ye Cherrokee Indians, his good children and subjects, H.M. has impowered us to treat with you here, and accordingly we now speak to you, as if the whole nation of the Cherrokees, their old men, young men, wives and children, were all present, and you are to understand the words we speak, as the words of the great King our Master, whom you have seen; and we shall understand the words which you speak to us, as the words of all yor. people, with open and true hearts to ye Great King. And thereupon we give four peices of striped duffles.

Hear then the words of the Great King whom you have seen, and who has commanded us to tell you, that the English everywhere on all sides of the Great Mountains and Lakes, are his people and his children whom he loves. That their friends are his friends, and their enemies are his enemies. That he takes it kindly, that ye Great Nation of Cherrokees have sent you hither a great way, to brighten ye chain of friendship between Him and them, and between yor. people and His people, that ye chain of friendship between Him and ye Cherrokee Indians, is like the sun, which both shines here, and also upon the Great Mountains, where they live, and equally warms ye hearts of the Indians and of the English. That as there are no spots, or blackness in the sun, so there is not any rust or foulness in this chain, and as ye great King has fastened one end of it, to his own breast, He desires you will carry the other end of the chain, and fasten it well to ye breast of Moytoy of Tellike, and to ye breast of your old wise men, your Captains, and all your people, nevermore to be broken, or made loose, and hereupon we give two peices of blew cloth.

The Great King, and the Cherrokee Indians, being thus fast'ned together by ye Chain of Friendship, He has ordered his people and children ye English in Carolina to trade with ye Indians, and to furnish them with all manner of goods that they want, and to make hast to build houses, and to plant corn, from Charles Town, towards ye town of the Cherrokees behind ye Great Mountains. For he desires that ye Indian and English may live together, as ye children of one family, where ye Great King is a kind and loving Father. And as ye King has given his land on both sides of ye Great Mountains to His own children ye English, so he now gives to ye Cherrokee Indians, ye priviledge of living where they please.

And hereupon we give one peice of red cloth. That the great Nation of the Cherrokees, being now the children of the Great King of Great Britain, and He their Father, the Cherrokees must treat the English as brethren of ye same family, and must be always ready at ye Governor's command to fight agt. any Nation, whether they be white men, or Indians, who shall dare to molest them, or hurt ye English. And hereupon we give twenty guns. 

The Nation of ye Cherrokees shall on their part take care to keep ye trading path clear, and that there be no blood in the path where the English white men tread, even tho' they should be accompany'd by another people, with whom the Cherrokees are at war, whereupon we give four hundred pounds of gunpowder. That the Cherrokees shall not suffer their people to trade with the white men of any other Nation but ye English, nor permit white men of any other Nation to build any forts, cabins, or plant corn amongst 'em, or near to any of ye Indian towns, or upon the lands which belong to the Great King, and if any such attempt shall be made, you must acquaint the English Governor therewith, and do whatever he directs, in order to maintain and defend the Great King's right, to the country of Carolina. 

Whereupon we give five hundred pounds weight of swan shot five hundred pounds weight of bullets. That if any negroe slaves shall run away into ye woods from their English masters, the Cherrokee Indians shall endeavour to apprehend them, and either bring them back to ye Plantation from whence they run away, or to ye Governor. And for every negroe so apprehended and brought back, the Indian who brings him, shall receive a gun and a matchcoat.

Whereupon we give a box of Vermillion, 10,000 gun flints, and six doz. of hatchetts. That if by any accidental misfortune, it should happen that an Englishman should kill an Indian, the King or Great Man of the Cherrokees, shall first complain to the English Governor. And ye man who did it shall be punished by ye English laws, as if he had killed an Englishman. And in like manner if any Indian shall kill an Englishman, the Indian who did it, shall be deliver'd up to the Govr. and punished by the same English law, as if it was an Englishman. 

Whereupon we give twelve dozen of spring knives, four dozen of brass kettles, and ten dozen of belts. You are to understand, all that we have now said, to be ye words of ye Great King, whom you have seen. 

And as a token that his heart is open and true to his children and subjects ye Cherrokees, and to all their people, He gives Hand and this Belt, which He desires may be kept and shewn to all your people, and to their children and children's children, to confirm what is now spoken. And to bind this agreement of Peace and Friendship, between ye English and ye Cherrokees, as long as ye Mountains and Rivers shall last, or ye sun shine. Whereupon we give this Belt of Wampum.

[Source: Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies, Volume 37, 1730, Pages 255-258]

The Cherokee response to this agreement was also reported at the time:

The seven Indian Chiefs of the Cherokee Nation attending as they had been desired with their Interpreter as likewise Col. Johnson & Sir William Keith Their Lordships told them they were ready to hear what the said Indian Chiefs had to say in answer to the propositions made to them in behalf of his Majesty on Monday last

Whereupon Scalilosken Ket-agusta being directed by Sky-agusta Oukah and the rest of the said Indians to speak in their behalf deliver'd himself in the following terms—

We are come hither from a dark mountainous place where nothing but darkness is to be found but are now in a place where there is light. There was a person in our Country with us he gave us a yellow token of warlike Honour that is left with Moyitchoy of Telloqua And as Warriors we received it He came to us like a Warrior from you a Man he was his talk was upright and the token he left preserves his memory amongst us.

We look upon you as if the Great King George was present and we love you as representing the Great King and shall dye in the same way of thinking.

The Crown of our Nation is different from that which the Great King George wears and from that which we saw in the Tower But to us it is all one and the chain of friendship shall be carried to our people

We look upon the Great King George as the Sun and as our Father and upon ourselves as his children For tho' we are red and you white yet our hands and hearts are join'd together.

When we shall have acquainted our people with what we have seen our children from generation to generation will always remember it.

In war we shall always be as one with you The Great King George's enemies shall be our enemies his people and ours shall be always one and dye together.

We came hither naked and poor as the worm out of the earth but you have everything and we that have nothing must love you and can never break the chain of friendship that is between us.
Here stands the Govr of Carolina whom we know This small rope which we show you is all we have to bind our slaves with and may be broken but you have iron chains for yours However if we catch your slaves we shall bind them as well as we can and deliver them to our friends again and have no pay for it. We have look'd round for the person that was in our Country he is not here however we must say that he talk'd uprightly to us & we shall never forget him

Your white people may very safely build houses near us We shall hurt nothing that belongs to them for we are the children of one Father the Great King and shall live and dye together.

Then laying down his Feathers upon the table he added This is our way of talking which is the same to us as your letters in the Book are to you And to you Beloved Men we deliver these feathers in confirmation of all we have said and of our Agreement to your Articles.

After which their Lordships told them they were well pleased with the consent they had expressed to the articles proposed to them in his Majesty's behalf.

Losing Humanity

Several years ago, I recognized how people's souls were being sucked out of them by their digital devices.  Now, it requires some effort to recall the time when people were still human - compared to what they have become.

Leftists share plenty of blame for pushing the trend farther and farther.  Disagree with their agenda and you are labelled an agent of "hate."  I actually preferred the freedom of living in a society where individuals had the freedom to "hate."  It was much better, much more diverse and genuine,  than the alternative of living in a society where individuals are forced to "love" (by a "benevolent" all-powerful government/technocracy.)

Replacing humans with robots is very pleasing to the PC thought police.  Robots won't make grievous errors such as saying "colored people" instead of "people of color."  Robots can be programmed not to ever, ever, ever do anything to offend  the victims of patriarchy.  Robots don't laugh at inappropriate times.  Robots will not hate.

This week's Biden kerfuffle is just the latest bellwether in the campaign to destroy humanity: